Impact of Political Insecurity on the Standard of Education in Nigeria

Impact of Political Insecurity on the Standard of Education in Nigeria
Impact of Political Insecurity on the Standard of Education in Nigeria

Impact of Political Insecurity on the Standard of Education in Nigeria


The study was conducted to examine the Impact of political insecurity on the standard of education in Uyo Education Zone. To achieve the specific objectives of the study, four research questions were set to guide the study. The literature related to the study were reviewed. The population of this study consists all students and teachers of in Uyo Education Zone. The population covers a total number of seven thousand one hundred and twenty seven (7,127) students and teachers. The researchers used simple random sampling techniques to select 3 schools where each school has equal probability or chance of being selected through hat and draw method, (also called lottery method) with the total population of two thousand five hundred and fifty eight (2,558). Similarly, 331 respondents were selected from the selected schools using Krejcie and Morgan table for determining sample size of a known population. The instrument used to collect the data for this study was a questionnaire developed by the researchers to test the research questions. The questionnaire was titled: Impact of Political Insecurity on Standard of Education Questionnaire (IPISEQ), and it was used to obtain information from students and teachers. The research design adopted for this study was descriptive survey.

The result of the findings revealed that, violence, closure of schools, creation of the problem of truancy, creation of fear and psychological trauma, maladjusted behaviour among students, denial of opportunity to develop creativity, drop in enrollment in schools, disruptions in the educational system of the affected areas, relocation of learners and creation of unsafe school environments are all impacts of political insecurity which affects the standard of education in Uyo Education Zone and Nigeria at large. It was recommended among others that, Massive national awareness programme should be   straddling   by government, educational stakeholders, professional and religious associations like MSSN, CAN, NISEP and CASSON on the danger of insecurity, conflict, violence and the likes as well as how best to eliminate the sources and pervasiveness of insurgency in the country.

Impact of Political Insecurity on the Standard of Education in Nigeria



1.1   Background to the Study

The deteriorating security situation and its effects on the standard of education in Nigeria is worrisome. Recently, Nigeria has witnessed unprecedented level of insecurity ranging from intra-communal, inter-communal and inter- ethnic clashes; religious violence; armed robbery; assassination, kidnapping and “boko haram” insurgency (Mutiullah cited in Abubakar, 2011). Insecurity in Nigeria is causing developmental challenges such as endemic penury, high rate of unemployment, inured corruption, low industrial output, unstable and deteriorating exchange rate, high inflation rate, inadequate physical and social infrastructure, large domestic debt, and rising external debt profile (Ewetan, 2013). These problems have posed severe threats to socio-economic development in the country in that it stifles business and economic activities and discourages local and foreign investors (Ewetan & Urhie, 2014).

Dambazau (2014) quoting Act 26 of 1948 on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, sees education as not only a public good, it is also a human right that is essential for the exercise of all other human rights, especially in promoting individual freedom and empowerment. Zukang cited in Dambazau (2014) links education acquisition of genuine wealth and happiness whereas lack of it exacerbates one’s level of ignorance and leads to blunders, poverty, unhappiness, and sometimes the commission of crimes. To him, the relationship between lack of education, poverty and poor health conditions diminishes opportunities to social and economic advancement which often leads to criminality.

Education is also essential in the military and para-military organizations which include the police that is saddled with the security of the nation. Dambazau (2014) stresses that education is used more as a strategic tool for advancement of technology needed for nation’s economic and socio-cultural development. In the military, it helps the armed forces to appraise situations; to estimate the battlefield; to examine the courses of action; to interpret the international environment; to project future warfare and design the battlefield; and requirement to analyze security threats. Education in the military is not all about warfare; it also contributes to national development, and at the same time enhances national security.

Dike (2003) submits that the socio-political and economic development of a nation and or her health are in many ways determined by the quality and level of educational attainment of the population. He, however, laments that the state of education in Nigeria cannot produce the critical and creative minds Nigeria needs to guide and manage democratic system and survive as a viable nation.

Lack of quality education and unemployment in Nigeria would contribute to many social ills, including crime, prostitution, and the breakdown of law and order. He suggested that education in Nigeria should be treated as a public-health issue, thus: … without treating education as a public-health issue that requires serious attention, the youths will continue to receive inferior education; they will continue to suffer mass unemployment and armed bandits will continue to rise; the society will continue to have illiterates and mediocres as political leaders; the society will continue to have political parties without ideology, and Nigeria will continue to fall behind economically, socially and politically. From the foregoing, it is neither exaggeration nor understatement to say that the higher a nation attains education, the stronger the nation’s security.

Notably, in recent times, this country has suffered plaques of crisis, each leading to loss of lives and destruction of properties. The insecurity crisis in Nigeria include kidnapping, armed robbery, and insurgency among others. Perpetrators of these heinous crimes in the country, always attribute their actions to penury and unemployment. Otite (2012) submits that the state of political insecurity in Nigeria could be attributed to security lapses on the part of security agents. Abubakar (2005) pinpoints failure of government to provide or manage the basic human needs of their citizens, ethnic disagreements, and national resource contentions as some of the factors responsible for insecurity in Nigeria.

Udoh (2015) is of the view that insecurity in Nigeria is caused by porous borders, illegal arms importation, proliferation of illegal arms, ethnicity, emergence of ethnic militia groups, corruption, marginalization, poor leadership, religious fanaticism/extremism, and unemployment. In the same vein, Olawale (2016) pinpoints unemployment, imbalanced development, corruption, weak judicial system, and porous coastal borders as causes of insecurity in Nigeria. Nadabo (2013) sees bad leadership, corruption, and illiteracy among other factors breeding insecurity in Nigeria. Odidi (2014) points to politics of bitterness in which ascendance to political power is seen as a do-or-die business. This invariably leads to political thuggery and insecurity.

Akintokunbo (2011) links insecurity in Nigeria to massive and unchecked corruption, greed, selfishness, unpatriotism, lack of political will and conscience, and of course, lack of vision and purpose. King (2016) states the causes of insecurity in Nigeria to include a combination of the following factors: lack of institutional capacity, lack of basic necessities, pervasive material inequalities and unfairness, ethno-religious conflicts, weak security system, loss of socio-cultural and communal value system, porous borders, rural/urban drift, anti-social and irresponsible companies, unemployment, and poverty.

In a bid to tackle these problems, the Federal Government has for some years now been allocating huge portion of the national budget to security, and in 2011 the Anti-Terrorism Act was equally enacted by the National Assembly (Ewetan, 2013). The Act seeks to provide for measures for the prevention, prohibition and combating of acts of terrorism, the financing of terrorism in Nigeria and prescribes penalties for violating any of its provisions (Oyebode, 2012). In addition, the federal government has embarked on fundamental surveillance, investigation of criminal related offences, heightening of physical security measures around the country aimed at deterring or disrupting potential attacks, strengthening of security agencies through the provision of security facilities and the development and broadcast of security tips in mass media (King, 2016).

Impact of Political Insecurity on the Standard of Education in Nigeria

1.2   Statement of the Problem

It is an undisputable fact that political insecurity has become a global issue which has hindered the teaching and learning process which is the heart of education. It has affected the productivity of teachers and management of students towards education which in turn affects their performance. Management of schools in Uyo Education Zone has become increasingly difficult due to the prevalence of activities of political insecurity.

It is observed that various schools in Uyo Education Zone are constantly in fear due to the heavy presence incidence of political insecurity in every part of Nigeria on daily basis,  hence managing the schools become tasking.

It is also observed that the impact of political insecurity on the standard of education is difficult to manage both teachers and students effectively. This and many other factors call for investigation to determine the Impact of political insecurity on the standard of education in the study area.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.