Influence of the Use of Model Resources and Teaching of Chemistry in Secondary Schools
1.1 Background of the Study
Chemistry is one of the science subjects in the school curriculum that deals with the study of the composition, properties and use of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.
As such, it is an activity oriented subject which suggested that method for teaching of chemistry should be guided discovery method which is based on the use of resources such as model (NTI, 2017). The scholar suggested that mastering of chemical concept cannot be fully achieved without the use of model resources. The teaching of chemistry without learning resources such as model will certainly result to poor learning in the subject.
Franzer (2012), stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher (chemistry teacher) no matter how well trained would be unable to put his ideas into practice, if the school setting lack equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality. According to Oquwazor (2012), model resources are those graphic things which help the teacher to teach effectively. An effective teaching is one where the objectives of the lesson have been achieved. Model resources are things that help assist and promote learning by giving assistance to the teacher to teach effectively and assist the learner to learn and understand faster. The use of model resources enhances effective teaching and learning.
Moreover, this has been emphasis in science teaching and on students achieved involving in the teaching and learning of science. The Nigerian National Policy an Education (2008) see chemistry as a practical and inquiring oriented subject that should be taught practically (involving students in the art of doing science). Through science process skill such as organizing, observation, information, designing and carryout experiment, interpreting the result, predicting events, reporting and generalization and conclusion.
Researchers such as Ogunleye (2008), Okonkwo (2009), Mkpanang (2010) and Obioho (2011) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching of science subject in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that where there were little resources at all, they are not usually in good condition were not enough to go round those who needed them. Hence, there is need for improvisation.
Omosewo (2009) and Akainsola (2010) considered the human factor as the teacher’s professional commitment, creativity, mechanical skills initiative and resourcefulness. They found that many Nigerian science teachers were aware of possibility of improvisation but many exhibited poor attitude toward improvisation. They also noted that very few teaches practiced improvisation while majority depends on imported equipment and claim improvisation is time consuming and found depleting.
The authors also noted that students too, possessed little or no interest in improvisation. Onasanya (2012) noted that improvisation demand adventure creativity curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher. The authors added that such skills are only realized through well planned training programme on improvisation.
The objective of any educational process determines the contents, method and materials need for achieving such objective. The material used for enhancing instructional effectiveness that may be used as part of instructional processes which are used to disseminate information massage and ideas or which make possible communicable in the teaching and learning process.
Experience over the ideas has shown that teachers have been depending on excessive use of word to express to convey ideas or facts in the teaching and learning process. This practice is termed the chalk and talk method today, advance in technology have made it possible to produce materials and devices that could be used to minimize the teacher talking and at the same time, make the message clearer, more interesting and easier for the learners to assimilate (Onasanya. 2008).
According to Soetan (2010), graphics includes chart, sketches, cartoon, poster, graph and drawings. Graphic communicate facts and ideas clearly through combination of drawings words and picture. The use of graphics in teaching creates definitiveness to the material being studied. They help to visualize the whole concept learned and their relationship with one another. Based on the above, the study therefore seeks to find out the influence of model resources utilization on the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Chemistry teaching over the years has been faced with various problems ranging from the absence of resources to the teaching of the subject. Due to this, some resources has been introduce to the educational system for effective teaching and learning, though, there is a chronic lack of using same resources in the teaching and learning process of Chemistry.
Therefore this lack of resources is attributed to a lot of factor by different researchers in recent year. One of such factor is teaching resources adopted by chemistry teachers in teaching the subject. Researchers has also shown that the use of model resources in the teaching and learning of Chemistry aids students to participate rigorously and bring about efficient learning experience. However, much effort has been made in carrying research on model resources utilization and teaching of chemistry. It is against this background therefore that the study model resources utilization and teaching of chemistry in secondary school become imperative of this research work.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the use of model resources and teaching of chemistry in secondary schools.
Specifically, the study sort to:
- Find, out the availability of model resources for the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools.
- To examine how the use of model resources influence the teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools.
1.4 Significance of the Study
On the successful completion of this work:
- Student teacher, school administrators and the society at large will stand a greater advantage because the outcome of the study will give them greater insight on the rule of model resources in the teaching and learning process.
- It would help a good number of chemistry teachers to have positive attitude toward the teaching of the subject.
- The findings will enable chemistry teachers and others science teacher to select and use good model resources of teaching and learning process.
- The outcome of this study will influence policy formatting pertaining to the training and retraining of chemistry teachers in the area of model resources.
- The study will equally serve as faced back in the education sectors.
- This research work would also serve as a reference point to other researchers who venture into this particular case. It would serve as a source of statistical data for those who have interest for such.
- Finally the finding would also reveal that the government should lay emphasis in the area of model resources, so as to promote effective teaching and learning of chemistry.