Model Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology

Model Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology
Model Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology

ABSTRACT: The study investigated the influence of Model Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology. Two research hypotheses were stated, one hundred SS 2 students were randomly selected from four secondary schools out of all SS 2 students from eight public schools in the study area. A quasi-experimental designed was adopted for the study. Biology performance test (BIOPET) was the instrument for data collection. Statistical tools used was t-test. Finding showed that students taught using models performed significantly better than those taught without model utilization and that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught using models.

Model Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology

Based on the findings, certain recommendations were made toward improving students’ academic performance prominent among these recommendations include: adequate provision of models and other instructional materials for effective teaching of biology and finally Educational administrators should organize seminars, conferences and workshops to improve the teachers as well as students’ knowledge on the use of models and other instructional materials in the classroom.



1.1     Background to the Study

Education is regarded as a machinery for the acquisition of knowledge and skills, its consists of two components which are inputs and outputs. According to Coombs (1970) cited in Effiong (2014) inputs consist of human and materials resources and outputs are the goals and outcome of the educational process. Both inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole.

The fall in the standard or quality of education is attributed to many factors. Research on the effectiveness of pictorial learning strategies have shown that learning is improved when piston’s supplement verbal materials, when learners draw their own picton’s while studying and when learners are asked to generates mental pictures while reading. Models have been used extensively in education to help clarify some of the answers researcher have round that might shed light on such question as “How do student learn effectively” or “what is happening in a particular classroom that facilitate learning better than in another classroom.

Carroll (1963) cited in Effiong (2014) proposed that the time needed by student to learn academic content is contingent upon aptitude (the most often use measures is 1θ, ability to understand the instruction presented), (the extent to which the posse prerequisite know), and the quality of instructions students reared in the process of learning. It disheartening to see that practicing teachers do not continue to use teaching materials after teaching practice: the need for the use of concrete materials to felicitate learning in students cannot be over emphasized. Teachers should always bear in mind that the purpose of any worthwhile instructional materials is to communicate effectively and clearly. Instructional materials should be used when presenting lesson as this will quicken the retention of concepts better than abstraction.

Models should incorporate all teaching resources which provide direct and concrete. Experience thereby reducing abstraction during instructional process (Nicholas, 2010 and Raw, 2003). According to Crobal. (2007), the use of instructional materials during teaching and learning can be faster. The in turn increases the performances of students in Biology. Momob (2011) further opined that effective and efficient learning depends to a greater extent on an effective communication between the teacher and learners in Biology class.

Effective instruction produces effective learning of any subject which to a large extent depend on the effective interaction and effective sharing of meaning between the teachers with the aid of instructional materials. Teachers therefore should be able to change their learners view and minds to learn through effective instructional communication

However, the use of instructional materials is so important to the learning process that it should not be dismissed with a wave of the hand. At any level of instruction, provision should be made for students’ participation. 

Model Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Education is seen as machinery through which acquisition of knowledge and skills is achieved such that every nation is gearing towards the provision of quality education for her citizens. This quality education is evidenced on the performance of students in external examinations e.g. West Africa School Certificate Examination (WASCE)

Unfortunately, it is observed by Momoh (2011) that the academic performances of most learners fall below expectation. (Udom, 2001) attributed this fallen standard to many factor among which are home factors, environmental factors, peer group influence, teaching methodology, teacher’s variable and many others.

However, (Popool, 2003 and Wales, (2005) have reported positive effects of the use of models on performances of students in other aspects of science like mathematics and physics. The question now is could the use of models also improve performance of students in Biology? This motivated the researcher to investigate on the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools.

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