ABSTRACT: The study examined Study Habits and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils in Social Studies. A survey design was used as a research design of the study. The population of the study comprised if all the one thousand and six hundred and six (1606) primary six (6) pupils in the study area. A sample size of one hundred (100) primary six (6) pupils were chosen in the study area through a simple random sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was social studies Achievement Test (SSAT) data generated for the study were analyzed using independent t- test statistical method the result of the finding revealed that a significant influence exists between time- allocation and pupils academic performance social studies and there is also a significant influence between note taking and pupils’ academic performance in social studies in the study area. Based on the above finding, it was recommended that students should endeavor to allocate their private time- table for effective leering of social studies and teacher should give note to student while teaching social student for effective learning of the subject.
Study Habits And Academic Performance Of Primary School Pupils In Social Studies
1.1 Background to the Study
In the field of education and psychology, learning has been discovered all over the world to be a highly complex problem. Several researchers have tried to complain it differently true. Over the fears, researchers on factors that influence academic achievement of pupils have attracted the interest of not only researcher but concern of teachers, counselors, psychologists and school administrators as well. How a pupils takes his or her studies greatly determines his/her level of academic achievements.
The levels of preparation and learning strategies developed and employed consciously by pupils go a long way to influence their level of academic performance (achievement). Thus, study habit is one of the greatest pupils or leaning factors that hugely influences pupils’ academic achievements. If undermined by pupils at all levels, teachers, administrators, parents and guardians, school counselors and the government, then, the trend and menace of pupils abysmal performance in both internal and external examinations would continue to boom and become more devastating and alarming.
Mark and Howard (2011) are of the opinion that the most common challenge to the success of pupils in all ramifications is a look of effective or positive (good) study habit. They further maintain that if pupils can develop a good study habit and with good discipline, they are bound to perform remarkably well in their academic pursuit. Hasian (2012) stresses that lack of effective or positive (good) study habits is a critical study problem among pupils at all levels. Grace (2013) also maintains that the process of learning is still a title mysterious but studies do show that the most effective process for studying involves highly active behavior over a period of time. In other words, to study effectively, one must read, draw, compare, memorize and test himself over time.
The concept of study habit according to Husian et al (2012) is broad, as it combine nearly all other sub-concepts such skills. Attitude is a mental and natural state of readiness, organized through experience exerting a direct influence on the individual’s response to all objects and situation with which is related.
Attitude towards study has great contribution on academic achievement, and good pattern. Successful learners adopt positive attitude towards study, and do not waste time or energy over what they have to do. If the learning experience is pleasant, the learner’s attitude and motivation is usually positive, and if the learning experience is not pleasant he tends to avoid it.
Negative attitude towards study sometime finds expression in comment such as “I study but cannot remember what I study “or” the lessons are too long” attitude serves as index on how we think and feel about people, objects and issues in our environment. Study attitude according to Williams (2011) refers to the predispositions which students (pupils) have developed towards private readings through a period of time. According to him, study attitude offers great possibilities foe successful achievement in studies. Study method is knowledge and application if effective study skills or techniques by pupils. Several study methods have been identified several effective study methods and skills that could be used by pupils based on the learning environment (Ukono 2014).
Kelli (2013) posited that for pupils to succeed in their studies, they must be able to appropriately assimilate subject content, digest it, reflect on it and be able to articulate the information in written and/or oral form. What is fundamental is the ability of a pupil to acquire effective study habits. Many pupils feel that the hours of study are the most important.
However, pupils can study for hours on end and retain very little. The more appropriate question is how pupils should study more effectively. Developing good time management skills is very important. Pupils must realize that there is a time to be in class, a time for study, time for family, time to socialize and time just be alone. The critical issue is recognition that there must be an appropriate balance. Pupils should also have vision. A clearly articulated picture of the future they intend to create for themselves is very important and contributes to pupils’ success in school. This will promote a passion for what they wish to do. Passion is critical and leads to an intense interest, dedication and commitment to achieving careers goals and objectives.
Marc (2011) explained that pupils with learning problems, however, many still have generally inefficient and ineffective study habits and skills. Becoming aware of your learning habits or styles will help pupils to understand why they sometimes get frustrated with common study methods. He observes that good study habits are essential to educational success, as they contribute to a successful academic future. Good study habits lead to good grades while good grades lead to admissions into secondary schools, possibly with scholarship thrown in. this in turn, will lead to a great career. Developing good study habits is very crucial for every pupil irrespective of his level of education. It boosts pupils’ ability to be self-disciplined, self-directed and ultimately successful in their certificate examination.
The sooner a pupils starts practicing and developing good study habits, the better chance he will have that he will continue with them procrastination can be overcome with proper study habits and improving one’s study habit is the key to better studying. Being organized and having home work routines are the most important things in helping a child/pupils develop good study habits for life. Developing good study habits help spell success and a pupil will find himself working more efficiently and experiencing lesser stress in the process. He adds that having effective study habits creates a more efficient academic environment. Planning your schedule as a student in advance and faithfully sticking to it serves time. Pupils who are anxious on exam day are typically the procrastinations who come unprepared. Pupils who organize their lives and stick to their established study schedule are confident and relaxed at test taking time (Michael, 2011).
Archibong (2013) opines that if pupils must ensure academic success throughout the entire year, it is important to ditch bad study habits and establish good ones. He further maintains that no matter what age or academic level, employing effective study strategies can make all the difference between acing a class barely passing or worse and failing miserably. He admits that many of today’s most common study methods or habits can lead to utter disappointment despite best efforts and intentions.
In the view of Agba (2013) un-serious pupils do study anyhow without specific techniques and he submits that such pupils are most likely to perform below average. Thus, he concludes that good study habits help pupils to attend classes very often and do so on time. It also helps them to submit their assignment on time read or prepare very well for tests and exams take down not and develop the points independently, ask relevant questions in class, thereby having good grades at the end of the term.
Monday (2011) writing on bad study habits maintains that developing good study habits in school will help pupils succeed in class and achieve educational goals. Generally, study habits and bad study habits. Good study habits according to Kelvin (2013) are sometime referred to as positive or productive study habits, as the name implies, they are those pleasant study habits which have the tendency to improve the academic performance of pupils or that seem to produce good results. They are the study habits which make pupils successful in their studies after developing and applying them throughout their academic career.
Good study habits occur as a result of practice and knowing what methods are most effective for you as a pupil. When studying, stay away from distractions such as the computer. Instead of studying in the might, lay to study in the day time. Review what you learned in class every day when you get home before starting homework.
In the same vein, Oliver (2012) highlight good study habits as thus: study every day, attending all classes, reviewing four notes daily, studying in a quick place and spending more time on topics you find difficult.
On the other hand, bad study habits according to John (2010) are negative or non-productive study habits which are undesirable and counter-productive to pupils’ academic performance. When developed and utilized by pupils at all levels, they tend to hamper academic progress and performance of the user. Due to the peculiarity and uniqueness of individual pupil, what may be considered as bad study habits to pupil “A” may seem to be very productive and efficient for pupil “B”.
However, bad study habits generally range from procrastination, truancy, not taking note selective reading, studying while watching television or what is generally regarded as distractive study etc. Nikki (2013) identifies bad reading habits to include studying with friends, listening to loud music while studying, studying in uncomfortable condition, cramming, etc.
According to Adeoku (2012), study habits can be affected by factors such as: age of a students, home environment, studying materials, television and computer games, social network (face book), pupils’ determination and aspiration, financial and economic status of parents, the teaching style of teachers and the nature of friends and peer group study habits are an important factors in learning, it becomes necessary to investigate into its nature.
Study Habits And Academic Performance Of Primary School Pupils In Social Studies
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The extent to which pupils excels or performs in his or her studies depends on the kind of study habits he or she develops and uses to a very large extent. A pupil who develops and utilizes good study habits is likely to perform better in his studies when compared with the one who has bad study habits. Thus, study habit is very instrumental to the academic success of every pupil at all levels.
However, one wonders the extent to which pupils in recent time develop and use their study habits, as most of the pupils in primary school hardly know how to study. This position is further stressed by Mark (2013) who is of the opinion that the most common challenge to the success of pupils in all ramifications is lack of effective or positive (good) study habits.
Most pupils do not have study plan to guide their studies. Some hardly attend classes, do their homework and prepare for their exam etc. This may not be unconnected to the recent abysmal performance of pupils in both internal and external exams. In line with the aforementioned problems, the researcher wants to investigate the effect of study habits on pupils’ academic achievement in social studies