Comparism of the Utilization of Models and Realia Resources and Academic Performance of Students

Comparism of the Utilization of Models and Realia Resources and Academic Performance of Students
Comparism of the Utilization of Models and Realia Resources and Academic Performance of Students

ABSTRACT: This study examines the Comparism of the Utilization of Models and Realia Resources and Academic Performance of Students. Research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A quasi-experimental design was employed in carrying out the study. The population of the study consisted of all SS2 science students offering Biology. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of schools and the Three hundred (300) Biology students for the study. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was the major instrument used for data collection. The data generated from the instrument were analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The result from the analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in academic performance between the Biology students taught using models resources and those taught using realia resources. Specifically, the students taught Biology using realia resources were found to perform better than their counterparts taught using models resources.

Based on the findings, the researcher recommended among others, that Biology teachers should be encouraged to use Realia resources in the teaching of Biological concepts instead of model resources as it promotes participation and interest among students thereby enhancing academic performance in schools.


Comparism of the Utilization of Models and Realia Resources and Academic Performance of Students



 1.1  Background to the Study

In teaching of Biology, learning is more effective and maximized if the learning environment has adequate instructional materials that can assist the learners in their learning process. This is acknowledgement of the role of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning process. Learning material here include all the resources which appeal to the senses and which enrich learning, such as graphic resources, non projected still pictures, projected still pictures, motion pictures (models and realia resources).

By way of definition, according to Gbamanja, (2018) and other researchers, they see realia resources as those real objects used by teachers as an instructional material to facilitate learning in a classroom, while models resources are those scaled representation of real material or objects. Meanwhile, these concepts helps in facilitating learning and retention of difficult concept learnt among the biology students in secondary schools. According to Eshiet  (2019), the best manner or approach in the teaching of a particular concept or phenomenon is the presentation of the real objects in the learning units as teaching facilities such as real specimens of plants or animals and real machine or tools, as they are known to exist or used in life situation. However in the absence of these object, diagram could be used as learning tools (models).

        From my own point of view, diagram are associated with problems in teaching effectively. These include the difficulty of learners to understand shapes of three dimensional object usually represented in drawing or diagram as two dimensional and the difficulty of learners in visualizing objects they are not able to see by themselves.  Meanwhile Eshiet (2019) suggested that all the nearest semblance or likeness of an observable objects is the model. The less abstract the object, the nearer the model is to reality.

In Nigeria educational system, both realia and models are three dimensional materials. As postulated by Gbamania (2018) these material or resources are usual instructional materials which give same accurate and specific representation of real life specimen or first-hand experience. Never the less, realia resources play a crucial role in the life of the learners in many aspects, meanwhile it provides first-hand or direct experience for learners. In addition, real specimen such as plants, machines or tools enrich learning of biology and make it ore concrete, authentic and interesting as the learners is made to handle and study these things directly.

Ibe Bassey (2016) viewed that models are scaled, 3-dimensional concrete representation of observable abstract concepts with particular references to the perspective of size and shape which provide the sensation of “Feel” which is often absent in 2-dimensional materials such as graphic and projected visual aids. Furthermore, the specific encouragement about model resources include the possibility of making them larger, smaller or often same size as the objects to be represented and providing learning experience with real objects such as colours and interior views.

Comparism of the Utilization of Models and Realia Resources and Academic Performance of Students

1.2   Statement of the Problem

 Over the years, media reports indicate that many students have failed to gain admission into university to read medicine, pharmacy and science laboratory in the polytechnic, because of their abysmal performance in Biology in public examination like WAEC/NECO and the joints tertiary matriculation examination (JTME). In addition, according to Okeke and Ochuba (2012) research studies, past and present West African Examination Councils Chief examines’ report on students performance in the Senior School Certificate Biology examination over the years indicate a persistent trend of students’ poor performance.

Ugodulumia and Dadughua (2010) suggested that among those factors indicated for students’ poor academic performance in Biology are poor knowledge of basic Biology concepts, inadequate exposure, inadequate preparation, poor knowledge of experimental set ups. These problems are the reflection of the teacher’s instructional methods. Other factors blamed included failure on the parts of Biology teachers to use instructional materials such as models, realia among others in their lesson delivery. It is therefore pertinent for the researcher to go into critical investigation, because even in the Nigeria Education system specifically in Ikono Local Government Area Akwa Ibom State, the educational standard with reference to Dadughua (2010) has called for a serious concern.

Meanwhile the percentage performance of secondary students scoring in science subject above is very low. However, Awa (2009) observed that the use of models and realia resources as an instructional materials during teaching and learning of Biology can significantly influence the pace at which students learn. A cursory look at the manner Biology is taught in our schools indicate that teachers scarcely use such instructional materials as models, realia and other teaching materials that can enhance effective teaching and learning of Biology. Nevertheless, in order to complement the above facts this study is therefore designed to compare the utilization of models and realia resources with regard to the academic performance of students in Biology among secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.