Family Types and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools

Family Types and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools
Family Types and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools

ABSTRACT: The study examined Family Types and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools. A survey research design was adopted for the study by the researcher. The population for the study was 2000 primary four pupils (pri.4). The sample size was 200 primary four pupils selected from 10 primary schools using simple random sampling techniques. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Questionnaire on Family Types and Pupil’s Academic Performance (QFTPAP) and Social Studies achievement test were the instruments used for data collection. The data generated was analyzed using an independent t-test.

Findings showed that there is a significant difference  in academic performance in Social Studies  pupil’s from nuclear family and those from extended family; also that there is a significant difference in academic performance of pupils from monogamous family and those from polygamous family in Social Studies. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that parents should endeavor to keep a manageable family size to be able to provide educational materials in order to boost pupils’ academic performance in social studies.


Family Types and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools



1.1    Background to the Study

Education is the most important instrument of change; any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to be preceded by an educational revolution. It is also regarded as the single potent factor that leads to the improvement of the individual as well as society. According to Ugwuja (2010) Education embraces all those experiences of the individual through which knowledge is acquired and intellect enlightened. There are various subjects in the field of education and social studies is among the various taught in schools for effective realization of educational goals.

Social studies is an integrated subject that deals with man’s activities, his relationship and interrelations with one another in his environment and his knowledge of science and technology to solve the problem in his environment. Nkire (2013) described social studies as the study of human (man) and his environment. This shows that social studies is very relevance subject in the educational sector which help pupils to understand their environment, find out problems and be able to use desirable skills, acquired through the knowledge of social studies, to solve them. It also inculcates in the pupils the right type of behaviour, attitudes and values to make them good citizens of our country, Nigeria.

Despite the relevance of social studies to pupils, there has been a downward trend in the academic performance of pupils in the subject. This therefore calls for concern among parents, teachers, and government. Daramola (2000) attributed this poor academic performance to the pupils’ background that is the type of home environment (family) where the child is raised. The family which is the primary environment of the child and the primary agent of socialization and education in the child stands to exert tremendous impact on the child performance in the school (Nyarko 2010). The environmental condition and the nature of social interaction that goes on in the family may have some positive or negative influence on the academic performance of a child.

According to Minner (2008) the family is a social unit which comprises of the father, mother and children and every other individual related to one another by blood. There are various types of family such as the nuclear family which consist of the parents and the children. Children in nuclear family receive strength and stability from the two parents’ structure and generally have more opportunities due to financial ease of the parents (Odok 2015). Another family type  is the extended family which goes beyond the parent and children to include other people related to the mother and the father. There are also the single parent and dual parents’ families as well as monogamous and polygamous families (Utipime 2016). Thus, the type of family the child is expose to could influence his/her academic performance in school.

Also, it is observe that pupils from polygamous and extended families may be exposed to severe economic stress which leads to inability to afford basic school materials such as textbook, poor feeding, poor accommodation and in extreme cases poor health. Based on this background, this study will therefore seek to examine the influence of family types on pupils’ academic performance in social studies in primary schools in Uruan Local Government Area.

Family Types and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Primary Schools

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The standard of education in primary schools has continued to fall and this is manifested in both external and internal examinations. For instance, there have been high rate of poor academic performance of pupils in social studies in internal and external examination and this has been a subject of concern to parents, teachers and the government.

Different measures such as guidance and counseling programs have been used in schools to improve the pupil’s academic performance. Yet yearly poor pupil’s academic performance is recorded. Several indicators such as study habit, self concept, and school environment and teachers qualification have been identified as factors responsible for pupils’ poor academic performance (Ella 2015).

From the aforementioned, the researcher observed that family types have not been given adequate attention in various regions in Akwa Ibom State as it may influence pupils’ academic performance. It is on this ground that the researcher specifically intended to examine the influence of family types (nuclear, extended, monogamous and polygamous families) on pupils’ academic performance in social studies in Uruan Local Government Area.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.