ABSTRACT: This research was aimed at examining the impact of roasting meat with automobile tyre on health of people in Uyo Metropolis. Information extracted from questionnaires administered to both male and female in the sample area formed the basis for discussion in this chapter. Findings are hereby discussed in relations to previous explanations stated earlier in the study. A total of one hundred (100) questionnaires were distributed to each of the five selected areas which were all butchers. These questionnaires were collected back on the spot. Specific objectives were drawn from which three research questions were formulated as indicated in chapter one. Relevant literature related to the study was reviewed, this covered variables with regard to each research question which included concept of meats and its importance, effects of using automobile tyre for roasting meat on health, and the general principles of meat hygiene and safety. The findings from the study are summarized as follows: there is significance increase in percentage of people who agree to the concept of meats and its importance (68.75%). It is also believed that using automobile tyre to roast meat has some dangerous implications on health (73.5%). It is agreed that the general principles regarding meat hygiene and safety should be strictly adhered to, thus maintaining the standard practice (67.5%).
The Impact of Roasting Meat with Automobile Tyre on Health of People
According to World Health Organization (2012), in order to perfect human health, it is essential to control levels in foodstuffs, given the wide spectrum of health effects of roasting meat with automobile tyre and the fact that the toxic metals from the tyre may accumulate in the body. The primary production of meat should be managed in a way that reduces the likelihood of introduction of hazards and approximately contributes to meat being safe and suitable for human consumption (FMOH, 2010). Assuring food safety throughout every part of the food chain has thus become a vital priority for the meat industry. This has prompted a rise in national and industry-led regulations aimed at improving food safety, animal production and animal welfare (FAO, 2015). In view of the above, the range of activities involved in meat hygiene should be carried out by personnel with the appropriate training, knowledge, skills and ability as defined by the competent authority (FAO, 2015).
1.1 Background to the Study
Meat is a food material, which is composed mainly of proteins, fat and some important essential elements and is necessary for growth and maintenance of good health. Goat, cow, sheep, pig, dog, chicken, meat etc are considered as the red meat produced by the domestic animals. It is commonly and mostly consumed meat all over the world by the people because of its high protein and iron level (Michael, 2017).
In Nigeria and in several other African countries, roasting in an open fire is the major process by which hair on the skin of slaughtered goats is removed (Alo and Olanipekun, 2016). This is because roasting maintains the carcass hide for consumption and also evokes flavours in the meat which are acceptable to the consumer. According to them, roasting is done mainly by the use of firewood as fuel, but the relative scarcity of firewood in recent times has resulted in local butchers using scrap car tyre in place of firewood. Tyres are believed to contain toxic materials which could contaminate the environment. US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2012) revealed that “tyre derived fuel” (TDF) contained several heavy metals such as lead (Pd), zinc (Zn), and Copper (Cu) that could be carcinogenic when exposed to consumers over a long period. Research also revealed high levels of heavy metal residues in goat and cattle hides roasted with scrap tyres, which made them unsafe for consumption (Antwi-Agyei and Obiri-Danso, 2012).
According to Braide and Dibofori-orji (2011), traditionally, roasting proceeds in open fire using firewood as fuel, but the relative scarcity of firewood lately has resulted in local butchers using scrap tyres as alternative source of fuel to roast slaughtered livestock. The practice, though unconventional and potentially dangerous, is increasingly favoured by local butchers; reasons being that fire from the scrap tyres is able to selectively burn off the animal fur without cracking the hide. Duruibe, Ogwuegbu and Egwurugwu (2014) posited that, many local butchers in Nigeria have been using scrap tyres as substitute for firewood to roast slaughtered ruminants. The burning of the hide is done under uncontrolled fires (i.e., open fires, not regulated) and lacks legislative measures, which is typical for poor households in developing countries such as Nigeria. There is also the possibility of a catastrophic fire occurring because of the large quantities of petroleum and other chemicals in tyres. A burning tyre creates thick, black, toxic smoke as well as large discharges of environmental pollutants (Essumang, 2012).
In view of the fact that tyres contain many potentially harmful substances, singed treatment with scrap tyres imposes enormous risk of deposition of toxic elements and compounds into the animal hide, which could significantly compromise meat quality (Kurt, 2013). Furthermore, tyre being non-biodegradable combustible material, when burnt under open and uncontrolled fire conditions as low temperatures produces black plumes of smoke as well as toxic volatilization products such as soot, which become incorporated into the ambient environment and causes air and water pollution as well as result in human and environmental hazard (FAO, 2015). In addition, large amounts of greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere. Dioxin does not breakdown; it accumulates in the fatty tissues of animals and humans that consume the contaminated vegetation, meats, chickens and dairy products. In humans, these Dioxins can lead to productive impairments, development of injuries and an increase in the risk of diabetes (Leita and Enne, 2011).
According to Essumang (2012), the risk of heavy metal contamination in meat therefore is of great concern for both food safety and human health because of the toxic nature of these metals at relatively minute concentrations. In this case, continuous consumption of such potentially contaminated meat product poses a great source of health risk. The environmental pollution caused by the burning of tyres is a matter of great concern worldwide, and consequently contamination of the food chain is getting increasingly important in view of its role in human health and nutrition. As such, there is need to curb this menace (Mohammad and Seyyed, 2012).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The growing population and incomes, along with changing food preferences are increasing the demand for livestock products (FAO, 2015). In Nigeria, roasting practices predominantly used in the processing of slaughtered livestock include, the use of fire fueled by scrap tyres, firewood or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to remove animal fur.
In Nigeria, despite the efforts of the Food and Drugs Agency which provides guidelines for the regulation of livestock products and also the presence of bye-laws in all Metropolis, to govern the production of meat in their respective slaughter houses, unhealthy practices such as animal roasting with vehicle scrap tyres, is still being exploited as a meat processing technique. In the light of the above, the researcher is motivated to conduct a study on the health implication of roasting meat with automobile tyres in Uyo Metropolis.
The Impact of Roasting Meat with Automobile Tyre on Health of People
1.3 Significant of the Study
It is hoped that the findings of this work will assist in identifying those factors that make the people to choose automobile tyre as a better option in roasting meat.
Findings of this work will serve as a baseline data for health planners in Government of Akwa Ibom State and Uyo Local Government in their collaborative efforts on meat hygiene and safety. It will also expose the impact of roasted meat with automobile tyres on health.
In academics, this work will serve as reference material to professionals and other researchers who may venture into this area of study.
1.4 Broad Objective
The broad objective of this study is to examine the health implication of roasted meat with automobile tyres in Uyo Metropolis.