COOPERATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PH OF PINEAPPLE AND WATER MELON
1.1 Background of the Study
Fruit is a structural part of plant that contains seeds, normally fleshy, sweet and edible in the raw states, which include: oranges, grapes, strawberries, juniper berries, pineapple, and water melon etc. (Mauseth, 2003). They are ripe ovaries or carpels that contains seed (McGee, 2004). Fruits contain various phytochemical compounds that are similar in composition to vegetables. All contain a high percentage of water averaging 85%. Fat, protein and carbohydrate (cellulose and starch) are present in small amount (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Most fruits are eaten as desserts and they can be processed into liquid product which includes fruit juices, wines and other preserves like; marmalade, jams, jellies etc. Fruit products are marketed canned, bottled or packaged in tetra-packets.
Cooperative Analysis Of The Ph Of Pineapple And Water Melon
Fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues. Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. Many of them that bear edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food (Lewis and Robert, 2002).
Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world’s agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, “fruit” normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, bananas, and lemons. On the other hand, the botanical sense of “fruit” includes many structures that are not commonly called “fruits”, such as bean pods, corn kernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes (Schlegel and Rolf, 2003; Mauseth and James, 2003).
Spoilage of fruits usually occurs during storage, transportation and while waiting to be processed. It has been recognize for many years that fruits continue undergoing biochemical changes even after harvest until spoilage occurs by microorganisms. This contributes to high post- harvest losses (Akande, 1995). An effective method of fruit preservation should retain the original characteristics of fruit as convenient as possible. The main methods of fruit preservation includes; Modified Atmosphere Storage (MAS), Controlled Atmosphere Storage (CAS), use of preservatives, use of irradiation, use of heat, chilling and processing all of which extend the shelf life of fresh fruit produce (George, 1999).
In processing, fruits are converted into more stable products through unit operations, such as cleaning, soaking size reduction, peeling, mixing, and heat treatment (Potter, 2003). Juice is a liquid that is naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue. It is one of the most popular drinks to go with breakfast in the morning (Franke et al., 2005). Fruit juice blends can be produced from various fruits in order to combine all the basic nutrients present in these different fruits for use when combined. This usually gives a better quality juice nutritionally and organoleptically. Akinosun (2010), has successfully produce juice from blend of watermelon and pineapple at ratio 90 to 10% respectively. However, there has not been work on the biochemical changes accompanying its storage so as to establish the shelf life of the product. Hence, the aim of this work is to investigate the biochemical changes accompanying water melon–pineapple blend during six weeks storage.
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries (Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 6 December 2009). It is the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family (Geo et al., 2003). Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit (Pineapple Working Group-International Horticultural Society, Retrieved 15 August 2010). Pineapples are consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, and preserved, and are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, in the Philippines the pineapple’s leaves are used to produce the textile fiber piña- employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses.
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a vine-like flowering plant originally from southern Africa. It is a large, sprawling annual plant with coarse, hairy pinnately, lobed leaves and white to yellow flowers. It is grown for it edible fruit, which is a special kind of berry referred to by botanists as pepo. The fruit has a smooth hard rind, usually green with dark green stripes or yellow spots, and a juicy sweet interior flesh, usually deep red or pink, but sometimes orange, yellow, or white with many seed.
Juices are the aqueous liquids expressed or otherwise extracted usually from one or more fruits (Bello et al., 2014). Juices are prepared mechanically by squeezing or macerating the pulp of fresh fruits or vegetables without application of heat or solvent to give an unfermented clouded, unclarified and untreated juice ready for consumption. Diluting or blending is a common practice as many fresh juices are either too acidic or too strongly flavored to be pleasant for consumption (Asha et al., 2014). Fresh fruit and vegetable juices are an important part of modern day diet in many parts of the world as they are rich source of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and other naturally occurring phytochemicals which are of health and therapeutic benefits (Ukwo et al., 2011).
The consumption of fruit juices could have both positive and negative effects on the part of consumers. Fruit juices processed under hygienic conditions could play important role in enhancing consumer’s health through inhibition of breast cancer, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and urinary tract infection (Bello et al., 2014). However, freshly extracted juices may not always be safe owing to the heavy load of microbes.
Major ingredients of juices such as water, sugar, natural fruit pulp, etc may also carry some microbial contaminants which may cause spoilage of the drinks or gastrointestinal disorders to consumers (Asha et al., 2014). The food market has stimulated the development of new products that present good sensory acceptance and of high nutritional value. Development of new products where two or more kinds of fruit juices are blended to obtain a product that combines the nutritional value of both fruits with the benefit of a pleasant taste has been encouraged by the food industry and has been well accepted by consumers (Ameh et al., 2015). This however calls for comparative analysis of acidity and alkalinity of pineapple and water melon.
Cooperative Analysis Of The Ph Of Pineapple And Water Melon
1.2 Statement of Problem
All life forms depend on plants either directly or indirectly for their survival and well-being. This is because plant and plant products provide man with basic necessity such as clothing, shelter and food (Alaekwe and Mojekwu, 2013). The significance of fresh fruits and vegetable in our daily cannot be overestimated (Pamplona-Roger, 2008). Ngoddy and Ihekoronye (1985), had found that fruits and vegetables offered the most rapid methods of providing adequate supplies of vitamins, minerals and fibre to people. They are also food sources with low energy density which are useful in weight management (Rolls et al., 2004).
Fruits contain high quantity of water, carbohydrates, vitamins A, B1 , B2, C, D, E and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, potassium and organic compounds which are required in small amounts, to make the body function properly (Okwu and Emelike, 2006; Onibon et al., 2007; Dosumu et al., 2009; Dimari and Hati, 2010). Consumption of fruits and vegetables at least 400 g daily as well as whole-grains, cereals and legume at least 30 g daily as been recommended by the world health organization and food and agriculture organization as the optimum diet for everyone (WHO/FAO, 2003).
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is an economically important plant in the Bromelanceae family which encompasses about 50 general and 2000 species mostly epiphytic [Femandes, et al 2008]. The worldwide total pineapple production is between 16 – 19 million tons (FAO, 2009). Pineapple and its juice demand continue to rise mainly due to increasing awareness of its health benefits (Nwachukwu, 2014). Its juice have an proximate composition of 81.2 – 86.2% moisture, 13 – 19% total solid of which sucrose, glucose and fructose are the main compositions, 0.4% fibre and a rich source of vitamin C (Dull, 2000). Pineapple also contains polyphenolic compounds and possesses antioxidant activity. Its pulp is juicy and fleshy with the stem serving as a supporting fibrous core. It is an excellent source of antioxidant, vitamin C which is required for healthy development. Pineapple juice is largely consumed around the world, mostly as canning industry by-products and in the blend composition to obtain new flavours in beverage and other products (De-Carvaiho et al 2007).
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a popular staple fruit in the world which is consumed equently as a dessert, fruit salad and used in garnishing drinks. It is a natural source of antioxidants (Alim-un-Nisa et al., 2012). Water melon is an unusual fruit source of the arotenoid lycopene and a rich source of phenolic antioxidants. It contains cucurbitacin E, a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient and unusual amounts of the amino acid citrulline (Dimitrovski et al., 2010). Water melon is an excellent source of immune-supportive vitamin C. It is also a very good source of vitamin A (Sivudu et al., 2014). In addition, water melon is a good source of potassium and magnesium. The nutritional profile of water melon is full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids etc (Adedeji and Oluwalana, 2013).
Pathogenic organisms can enter fruits and vegetables through damaged surfaces, such as punctures, wounds, cuts and splits that occur during growing or harvesting. Contamination from raw materials and equipment, additional processing conditions, improper handling, prevalence of unhygienic conditions contributes substantially to the entry of microbial pathogens in juices prepared from these fruits or vegetables. Processing the fruits to juice could therefore be the solution to the problem of spoilage of fruits. This research is informed by physicochemical and acidic contents of pineapple and water melon. Hence, the study is drawn to Cooperative Analysis of the Ph of Pineapple and Water Melon.