ABSTRACT: The main purpose of the study was to examine Motivation and Teachers’ Performance in Teaching Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools. Specifically, the study examine teachers’ performance, under the following sub-heads; influence of regular payment of salaries on teachers’ performance the teaching of Business Studies with special reference to Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. The method used for the study was a survey method. This method permitted the use of a questionnaire to sample opinions of 45 teachers out of the population of 63 teaching force from 5 selected secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. The data collected were analyzed and tested using chi-square (x2)statistical tool at a significant level of 0.05 with the degree of freedom of 12. The study findings were as follows; There is a significant influence of regular payment of salaries on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies. There is a significant influence of good working condition on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies. There is a significant influence of provision of teachers’ quarters on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies.
Motivation And Teachers’ Performance In Teaching Business Studies In Junior Secondary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Education is considered to be the fifth most stressful profession (Kyriacou, 2001), and teaching in the secondary school is regarded as one of the top 10 tough jobs (Hayward, 2009). There are many aspects contributing to the success of Business Studies teaching and learning process. One such aspect is the teacher. Teacher has a crucial role and is one of the main factors that contribute to the students’ achievement. It is important to realize that the role of teachers is not only to teach, but also to motivate students, especially, students who live in rural areas where there are a lot of difficulties and challenges faced by the students and teachers as well. In the study of Atkinson (2000); Bernaus, Wilson and Gardner (2009); Guilloteaux & Dornyei (2008), it is found that the ability of teachers to successfully guide students to learn well depends on how they are motivated. Dornyei & Ushioda, (2011) emphasized that there is a good opportunity for students to be well guided in the teaching and learning process when teachers are well motivated. This implies that teachers’ motivation is a significant factor that contributes to the students’ academic performance.
According to Pate (1998) the study of motivation is concerned, basically, with why people behave in a certain ways. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary explains motivation to mean “reason for somebody’s action; to cause somebody to act in a particular way and to stimulate the interest of somebody; to cause somebody to want to do something. This appears to be the determinant of the level of dedication to duty by workers in organization. Thus, motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him the cause of action already initiated (McCarthy, 2012). To Certo (2016), motivation is giving people incentives that cause them to act in desired ways. Motivation activates and energizes behavior and gives direction to behavior. Hence, teachers’ motivation is a way of empowering teachers in the occupation and it involves the perceptions, variables, methods, strategies and activities used by the management for the purpose of providing a climate that is conducive to the satisfaction of the various needs of a teacher, so that they may become satisfied, dedicated and effective in performing their task.
Furthermore, Peretomode (2004) described motivation as the process of influencing or stimulating a person to take action that will accomplish desired goals. This however implies that motivation has the role to develop and intensify the desire of every member of the organization to work effectively and efficiently in his position.
The most common motivation to any workforce is that which is built on human relations philosophy of management. According to Simon (1970), motivation is said to be when organization is observed that is created to “satisfy the need of individual members who work to achieve those objectives of the organization therefore, organization effectiveness can only possibly be assumed when there is an agreement between organizational objectives and individual needs.” Thus Ezeali and Eziagu (2009) maintain that is an “energetic force that compels or induces maintenance of a particular behavior”. They however explained that motivation is not only restricted to physical and tangible things like money or promotion but also intangibles like psychological factors. Even though money occupies a major place in the mix of motivators, money alone cannot motivate employee well to work unless it is coupled with other non-monetary motivators (Frey and Osterloch, 2002).
According to Bell (2004), the success of the education enterprise therefore depends on effective mobilization, empowerment and utilization of efforts of the teachers. Beside financial incentives, social and psychological factors undermine the performance of most teachers.
Oluchukwu (2000) observes that the use of positive reinforcement and incentive programmes such as staff welfare schemes are essential in maintaining staff motivation. To Luthans (2005), welfare schemes are the strategies employed in motivating teachers for better job performance. These are in form of salary increment, gratuity, and regular promotion, ensuring job security, and establishing cordial relationship among teachers.
Teachers motivation could also be referred to as those factors that operate within the school system which if not made available to the teacher could hamper performance, causes stress, discontentment and frustration; all of which would subsequently reduce classroom effectiveness and students quality output (Cole, 2000). Thus, Stimulating working atmosphere boosts morale of organizations to do more to achieve the goals (Siagian, 1986). Workers are satisfied when the work place is orderly with adequate tools, materials and a favourable environment while poor equipment and facilities may lead to tension and stress among employees (Hanushek, 2003). If working conditions are not conducive, hardworking employees who can find jobs elsewhere leave while mediocre employees would stay (Hanushek, 2003).
Teachers value physical surroundings that are safe, comfortable, close to home, are clean, have adequate tools, equipment and buildings that are in good conditions. Halpert adds that employees also prefer pleasant working conditions due to their desire for physical comfort and the desire for conditions that facilitate work goals attainment (Halpert, 2011). Johnson (1990) has pointed out that teachers are malleable and dynamic within a workplace, which has a professional and supportive environment that encourages their learning and growth.
However, as the school curriculum contents changes overtime, teachers need to be adequately equipped with the conceptual and technical knowledge, skills and competencies so as to improve their efficiency in classroom instruction. Hence, the need for in-service training programme as a means to continuously update teachers’ knowledge, skills and interest in chosen field (Nakpodia, 2008). It is a means for continues professional growth, which encourages the extension of technical assistance by teacher educators. Onyejiaku (2007) perceives in service training as a professional training or development effort where professionals are prepared for greater job efficiency. In fact, it promotes a very flexible environment, allow workers to adopt with the working situation and also service as a form of motivation for employees. In-service training can take the form of workshops, seminars, conferences and even refresher courses.
Ijaiya (2011) described teachers’ performance as the ability of teachers to combine relevant inputs for the enhancement of teaching and learning processes. She determined the variables for teachers’ job performance as follows: Effective teaching measured by student academic performance in examination; Punctuality at school and class; Giving extra-lessons to the students; Class control; and Contribution to the progress of the school through participation in co-curricular activities and committee assignment as may be given by the principal.
Research on motivation draws on several theoretical perspectives, based on the differing approaches to the origins or sources of motivation, e.g. energy, heredity, learning, social interaction, cognitive processes, activation of motivation, homeostasis, hedonism or growth motivation (Petri, 1996). Hence, this study is guided by theories, including Fredrick Herzberg’s (1959) Two Factor theory, Abraham Maslow’s Need Based hierarchy theory (1943) which guide the linkage between motivation and teachers’ performance, and Equity theory. Fredrick Herzberg’s Two factor theory has stated that there are certain factors in the work place that can cause job satisfaction while others cause dissatisfaction.
Herzberg divided the factors into motivating and hygiene factors. The motivating factors are strong contributors of job satisfaction and include things like challenging work, recognition and responsibility (Nairuba, 2011; Bhatnagar, 2014; Linda & Hannah, 2015). However, the hygiene factors are not strong contributors of job satisfaction but must be present to meet employee expectations and prevent job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include: provision of employee accommodation, break tea, lunch, medical care, compensation and good working environment to ensure that an employee is not dissatisfied and ultimately promote effective employee performance (Namuddu, 2010; Bhatnagar, 2014).
Abraham Maslow’s (1943) hierarchy of needs on the other hand, organizes human needs from basic to sophisticated levels. In order of increasing importance, the clusters of needs included in Maslow’s hierarchy are physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization.
According to Maslow’s postulation once needs on one level are satisfied, needs at higher levels emerge and dominate the organism’s thoughts and behaviors. Hence, the need or desire for achievement will not drive a person’s thoughts and behaviors until needs on the lower levels have been satisfied.
Adams postulated the equity theory in 1965. According to this theory, people are motivated if they experience equity/fairness at work. Baron et al. (2002) assert that people make judgments or comparisons between their own inputs at work (e.g. their qualifications, experience and effort) and the outcomes they receive (such as pay and fringe benefits, status and working conditions).
According to the equity theory, perceptions and not facts influence motivation (Steyn, 2002:95). Hence, the equity theory provides the basis for studying motivational implications of perceived unfairness and injustice at the workplace.
However, motivation encourages the teachers to produce quality learning process. Teachers also want to get a strong urge to do their job at school. Teachers who have high motivation in teaching have high achievement. To move forward and have a high achievement in the implementation of the learning process in secondary schools, teachers need encouragement and efforts to develop, improve loyalty and commitment to the profession and receive the award. From the foregoing, there is need for teachers to be motivated towards the execution of their noble duties in order to actualize the goals of education. It is therefore imperative to research on Motivation and teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
Motivation And Teachers’ Performance In Teaching Business Studies In Junior Secondary Schools
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The school, like any other organization has some basic goals to achieve which among other things include a change in learner’s behavior and character. The key factor for the realization of this goal is the teacher. The teacher is very important in the educational system, since he occupies a position that is pivotal in ensuring a smooth running of the system. It is upon his professional competence, commitment and sense of duty makes school achievement possible.
Despite the importance of the teacher in educational organizations, Bojuwole (1995), observed that many public school teachers are not motivated by government and are poorly and lately paid, disgruntled by the poor conditions of the environment of their work-place as well as by their deplorable condition of service. The evil treatment matted on teachers has made them to devote more of their energies to trade-union matters contending with their employers for better condition of service rather than attending to their students (Guilloteaux & Dornyei, 2008). The main source of Teachers anger and frustration is that they are placed on low level of salaries, allowances and fringe benefits whereas workers in other sectors of the public services with the same academic qualifications and experiences receive better treatment from the same employer (government). The disparity is always apparent, if not evident, in some cases where the starting salaries of teachers and their equivalent counterparts in the public service are the same, huge hidden benefits and allowances which are nontaxable are paid to those in the public service and other parastatals (Certo, 2016).
The analysis of quality of work life of teachers at all level of education system showed that teachers are dissatisfied with salary, fringe benefits, professional growth opportunities, absence of welfare services such as bus service, canteen services, housing schemes etcetera (Njoku, 2011).
Okendu (2012) Opined that when salaries and incentives of teachers are improved as the first gesture to improve their leaving standards, teachers will work towards improving the performance hence will be appraised positively. This will result in improvement of their living standards and working conditions of teachers in the country since these teachers will not stagnate in the same job group over the years. This study therefore undertaken to investigate into the effect of Motivation on teachers’ performance in teaching Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.