Abstract: This study investigate the influence of School Type and Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. To realize these objectives, four research questions alongside four null hypotheses were formulated in the study. A Quasi-experimental research design was used in the study. The total number of 3643 pupils constituted the population of the study from all the twenty seven (27) primary schools in the study area. A sample size of three hundred pupils was selected from ten (10) primary schools in the area. The main instrument for data collection was basic science achievement test. The data collected were analyzed statistically using independent t-test.
The result for the findings indicate that there is a significant difference in the performance of pupils taught basic in Urban school from those in rural schools. Also, the study equally indicates that there is significant difference in the performance of pupils in Basic science between those from public schools and those in from private schools. The findings also indicate differences in the performance of pupils between those in single sex schools and those in coeducational schools. Finally, the findings indicate that there is no significant difference in the performance of pupils in large class size and those in small class size.
School Type and Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science
1.1 Background to the study
It is an indisputable fact that education in Nigeria is as old as the Nigerian society itself. The Western education practiced in Nigeria begins in a formal classroom setting in schools. Accordingly, there are many factors within the educational system which influence the teaching-learning process as well as learner’s academic performance. One of such factors is the characteristics of the school.
Schools are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. It is also more important that the teachers and learners are properly accommodated to facilitate the teaching and learning that go on there. This is the essence of the school plant (Alimi 2004). Generally, secondary schools, irrespective of ownership are expected to function in compliance with the achievement of the national education objectives. In Nigeria, it is the general opinion of people that private schools are better in terms of the availability of human and physical facilities, classroom environment and consequently students’ performance than public schools.
Omoyemi (2008) noted that some of the factors within the school system that have direct bearing on the teaching-learning process include facilities, availability of qualified and experience teachers, the location of the school, school ownership, school class size among others. It is expected that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes in academic performance of learners in school. Hence, the effect of school type on the academic performance of learners cannot be over emphasized
Ezike (2007) conceptualized school type into urban schools and rural schools, boarding or day school, mixed or single sex. According to the author, urban schools environment are areas which have high population density containing a high variety, beautiful and common place views while the rural schools environment is characterized by low population density containing a low variety and isolated views.
Earlier in his contribution, Lipton (2004) maintained that rural community is characterized by low population subsistence mode of life which is monotonous and burdensome, citing hostels, recreational centers, banks markets and good road network as being present in the urban environment. This according to him explains why highly qualified teachers prefer to serve there in rather than the rural areas. However, it is obvious that most teachers do not accept posting to rural areas because their conditions are not up to the expected standard as their social life in the area as a result of inadequate amenities, facilities are deficient, playgrounds are without equipment, libraries are without books making a critical analysis of locational factors.
Hallak (2008) submitted that provision of education in rural schools is normally found with some difficulties and problems qualified teachers refuse appointment in isolated villages, villagers refuse to send their children to schools because they are dependent on them for help parents hesitate to entrust their daughters to male teachers, some villagers have few children for an ordinary primary school, lack of roads or satisfactory means of communication makes it difficult to get books and teaching materials to the school which place difficulties in way of organizing school transport among others.
Nevertheless, for quite some time, a general perception of the size of school equally influences the academic performance of students. Bling (2009), asserted that class size in some school influences the academic outcome of the pupils, in went further to say that when learners are overpopulated in a particular primary school they hardly comprehend the learning objective. Asan, (2011) was in this opinion when he added that, the possibility of students having a better performance is related to nature of the classroom where the teaching and learning takes place.
Duke (2008) opinion the general attainment of educational objective is related to the availability of experience and qualified teaching personnel. This is to say that, some schools lack qualified teachers due to school management being unable to pay and maintain the teachers. This concern about the differences in education outcomes is not limited to Nigerian schools but rather it appears to a global issue. In addition to the problem of societal bias and prejudice against the types of schools, the researcher was therefore interested to examine the influence of school type on academic performance of pupils.
School Type and Academic Performance of Pupils in Basic Science
1.2 Statement of the problem
In educational system, success is measured by academic performance or how well a student meets the standard set out by the institution. The menace of failure among the young school students has stared the parent’s government and stakeholders in the face. There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man-power resources. Most students in secondary schools experience academic problem that manifest itself in the form of poor academic performance mostly in Basic Science.
Parents and stakeholders in education have condemned the high rate of poor academic performance of pupils in internal and external examination, Cythia and Megan (2008) opine that schools were also involves, reason range from poor teaching personnel and non-availability of school facilities therefore this study would attract attention to whether school types influence academic performance in subjects of basic science in primary schools.