Birth Order and Academic Achievement of Students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

Birth Order and Academic Achievement of Students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools
Birth Order and Academic Achievement of Students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

Abstract: The study examined Birth Order and Academic Achievement of Students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools. The population for the study consisted of 1976 Junior Secondary Three (JS3) students; out of this number, three hundred Business Studies were randomly selected from four selected public schools as sample size. The Business Studies JS2 Promotion Examination Result (BSPER) and a questionnaire were the instruments for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive percentage statistical method.

Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in academic achievement of students of first, second, middle and last birth order students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools in the study area. This is because firstborn children performed more better than every other siblings. Based on findings, it was recommended that students should recognise the need for effective participation during presentation in class in order to promote or boost their academic achievement in Business Studies.

Birth Order and Academic Achievement of Students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools



1.1     Background of the study

Every member of the society belongs to a family. It is incontrovertible that the secondary school students like every mortal come from a home. Some come from extremely poor homes while others well- to-do parents. There are also those that come from a polygamous family, while others come from a monogamous family. Whichever category a learner belongs, it has either positive or negative effect on his or her academic life and bring with him/her to formed schooling a way of functioning which carries the imprint of him/her upbringing at home.

Maduakonam (2015) asserted that the home lays the foundation for goals and motivation early in the life of a child. A child first learns what is important through the values or goals that are considered most important in the society by emulating the parents. Children most often absorb the values of the parents but even if they reject them, they will b e deeply influenced by them. Ezewu (2006) opined that the preponderance of delinquents among school population were from polygamous homes. The author also added that disciplined and in disciplined behaviours among children is a function of the homes.

However, it is a common knowledge that a number of home variables discussed above have a significant influence on the education of the child. For instance, in spite of the government policies on family planning, a number of parents are still producing an uncontrollable number of children. Such parents, in this era of global economic recession may not be able to cater for the socio-economic and educational and educational needs of the family members.

It is indisputable that priority attention will be given to the education of first born whereas education of middle and last children suffers set back. When this happens, the disadvantaged children (middle and last born children) are often seen lacking in basic educational materials and some dropping out of school when parents cannot afford their fees.

Furthermore, people are intrigued by the fact that children of the same family behave dif fervently although they were raised in the same environment, such as neighbourhood, and share the same genetic pools from both of their parents. On top of behaviours, siblings do differ in terms of personality characteristics, intelligence and others.

Firstborns are always described as being responsible, high achievers and perfectionist whereas lastborns and only child are always described as the baby of the house and mostly spoiled kids. As a result, those differences among siblings have attracted the attention of researchers over the past decades.

Ebukiba (2013) stated that the home background of his educational performance in school. The author also maintained that the home is the most important primary group and the smallest social unit in the society. It is also biological, social and universal in the sense that no human society could possibly exist or has existed without some forms of home organization. This is because parents, siblings and family members help to shape the character, behavioural pattern and personality of young children.

Birth Order and Academic Achievement of Students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools

1.2     Statement of the problem

In junior secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State, students have been performing so poor in most of their school subjects including Business studies. This poor performance leads to problems among teachers, parents and even, the students involved (Ebere, 2014). This unsatisfied performance among students in this subject (Business Studies) motivated many researchers to investigate on the factors responsible for the poor academic achievement of students.

Fraza, Welberg and Hattle, (2013) pointed out that academic achievement of Junior Secondary School students can be attributed to many factors as students have many responsibilities and are from different family background, different order of birth as well as different family structures. Dick (2014) observed that birth order affect the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools. This motivated the researcher to carry out this research to investigate whether birth order also affects the academic achievement of students in Business Studies in secondary schools in the study area.

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