School Climate And Academic Performance Of Social Studies Students In Secondary Schools

School Climate And Academic Performance Of Social Studies Students In Secondary Schools
School Climate And Academic Performance Of Social Studies Students In Secondary Schools

Abstract: This study examined School Climate and Academic Performance of Social Studies Students in Secondary Schools. Research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study in null form. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of study comprised 2,874 all Junior Secondary School students in the study area. A sample size of 120 JSS3 students was chosen for the study. The Instruments for data collection were School Climate and Academic Performance Questionnaire (SCAPQ)” and 2015 Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination Results (JSSCE) in Social Studies. The data generated from the study were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The results showed that there is a significant relationship between school location (location and instructional facilities) and students’ academic performance in social studies. It was concluded that school Climate has a significant relationship on students’ academic performance.

Consequently, a number of recommendations were made, one of which is that government and other relevant agencies should ensure that schools are sited in a conducive environment that will guarantee effective teaching- learning process vise-visa improvement in students’ academic performance, also Dilapidated school infrastructures in rural areas should be renovated to attract qualified teachers and learners which will intern help to de-congest the urban schools and bring about qualitative and sound education.

School Climate And Academic Performance Of Social Studies Students In Secondary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Education is seen as a tool of socio-economic development and the drive of change in different spheres, regardless of the increased number of secondary schools in most of them still encounter problems such as good studying climate, competent teachers to facilitate students’ learning, poor and insufficient buildings, insufficient desks, overcrowded classrooms, in adequate number of text books and poorly motivated teachers due to lack of supports from education system (Nyaigoti, 2011). School climate is an integral and essential component of the teaching and learning process in Nigeria and the world at large. However in most of the schools, climate is not conducive (Nyaigoti, 2011). Most of the Secondary schools have poorly facilitated environments where there is an acute shortage of teaching and learning facilities, lack of enough classrooms as a result of increased enrollment and incompetent teachers.

In order to attain education quality necessary inputs such as conducive academic environment, good quality of infrastructure, adequate teaching and learning materials, strong parental involvement, quality of students with adequate entry qualification, highly qualified and motivated staff as well as financing in which the government plays a major role, and should be taken into consideration.

School plays important and vital role in students’ performance and behaviour modification. School climate are the catalysts of change; they are the torch bearers always lighting the path towards progress of the world in all its facets. The classroom still remains to be the main learning environment in the schools although learning can take place in other venues. On this premise, it is imperative that educators strive to make the classroom the best venue for students to attain their full potential in academic performance. It is what teachers think, what teachers do and what teachers are at the level of the school that ultimately shape the kind of learning that students get. So, classroom climate is so much influenced by the teacher’s daily mood and is so much affecting the female student’s academic standing in the classroom.

School climate is defined as the type of environment that is created for students by the school, teachers, and peers. Teachers are continually looking to create a “positive” school climate in which student learning is maximized (Bilbo, 2012). It is having an environment where students feel safe, nurtured, and intellectually stimulated. This type of positive school climate allows for students to meet their basic needs of physical and mental health. While there is no specific definition of what creates a negative school climate, it is considered to be one in which students feel uncomfortable, whether physically, emotionally, or academically, for any reason.

There are two aspects of school climate: the physical and social environment. Physical environment refers to the arrangement of chairs, tables, fixtures and pieces of furniture, the painting, lighting and ventilation while the social environment refers to the leadership exhibited by the teacher like democratic, authoritarian and laissez-faire and the mode of students’ participation such as collaborative, individualistic or competitive (David, 2009). The school climate influences the student achievement, their self-esteem and participation in the lesson.

The most important aspect of school climate is the relationship between teacher and students. There must be elements of caring, trust and respect in the interpersonal relationships between teachers and students. An effective school climate is one in which the teachers’ authority to organize and manage the learning activities is accepted by the students. There is mutual respect and good rapport, and the atmosphere is one of purposefulness and confidence in learning. A key consideration is the extent to which the teacher is able to foster favorable perceptions towards learning among students, by establishing in students self-respect and self-esteem regarding themselves as learners.

The school Climate refers to the general flow of behaviour and feeling with in a group. School climate is the type of environment that is created for students by the school, teachers and peers. Teachers are continually looking to create a “positive classroom climate in which student learning is maximized”. School climate as encompassing all the socio-psychological dimensions of school life. This included common interest and the pursuit of common goal achieved through focused, organized and well planned lessons

Generally, education sector cannot be improved if the climate of the Secondary schools and the students’ academic achievement are not put forward. Hence School climate should be taken into consideration as it is a multi-dimensional and influences many individuals such as students, parents, School personnel and the community. It can impact significantly on the educational environment, owing to that a positive School climate is essential for students’ success. There are different types of school climate that impact student performance. These includes positive (very favourable/ favourable) and negative (unfavourable/fairly favourable) climates. These types indicate that a school climate which is positive allows students to perform better as it supports students morally, physically as well as academically.

Whereas negative school climate cannot bring about school improvement and enhanced school effectiveness and entails that the school is poor or lacks physical resources, interactions is poor, or learning does not take place smoothly. The school which is having a positive climate fosters learning to take place and while the school which has negative climate impedes learning and hence students may develop tendency of disliking subjects. Many researchers and authors have identified the following characteristics of school environment, which may influences either negatively or positively on academic achievement of students.

Positive characteristics includes: Involvement, satisfaction, self worth, social satisfaction, competence, (Academic achievement), intimacy, independence, enthusiasm, home work, teaching methods, acceptance problem structuring, cohesiveness, task orientation, teacher support, study habits, cognition, school environment, disengagement, friction, difficulty. Negative characteristics includes: Psycho-physical hindrance, alienation, apathy, formality, direction, diversity, reproving, lack of hope, control (Sunitha, 2005). The negative characteristics impede learning and develop negative attitude and social emotional problems.

Students develop withdrawal tendencies. A positive school climate has been found to be positively related to indicators of school success, such as standardized test scores, annual yearly progress (AYP) measures, and school report card information (Gareau, & Rawls, 2008) as cited in South Carolina Educational Policy Center, (2009). These studies further suggest that, schools that have better climates are more effective at promoting the achievement with their students relative to schools with similar students and less functional climates.

School Climate And Academic Performance Of Social Studies Students In Secondary Schools

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem under study has to do with an unsatisfactory condition of the educational system being operated in Nigeria. The establishment of government schools/community schools has resulted in a situation whereby some school were favoured in terms of the provision of rich climate/environment than others. It has been very difficult if not impossible for government to standardize the school climate.

Thus, the climate varies from school to school. Some schools have adequate and conducive learning environment, school buildings, good library and suitable textbooks, good administrative management, professionally qualified teachers, good laboratory equipments as well as good location. While in some schools little or none of these exist. It is because of this that Chike-Okoli (2007) in line with Ikediashi (2009) have pointed out that poor teaching experience, inadequate or poor physical infrastructure, unsatisfactory building design are likely to cause some physical discomfort for the students and are therefore bound to influence their academic performance . It is against this background therefore, that this study “School climate and academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary schools.

 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine “School climate and academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary school  in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. The specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To examine the relationship between school location and academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary school in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
  2. To examine the relationship between school instructional facilities and academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary school in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent does school location relate to academic performance of student’s in social studies?
  2. To what extent does school instructional facilities relate to academic performance of student’s in social studies?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant relationship between school location and academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary school in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.
  2. There is no significant relationship between school instructional facilities and academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary school in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is anticipated that the findings of this study would be of immense benefits to teachers, educational planners and policy makers, school administrators, researchers and other stake holders in the education sub-sector in the following ways:

  1. It would reveal if school climate account for the poor academic performance of students in social studies.
  2. It would make known the specific school environmental factors that affect students’ academic performance in school.
  3. It would provide Government with research data in planning for the overall development of the school system.
  4. It would add to the body of existing literature on school climate in relation to students’ academic performance.
  5. Finally it would serve as a reference material for further research on academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary school in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area not only in social studies but other school subjects.

 1.7 Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited in scope to academic Performance of Social studies students in secondary school in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. Analysis was on Junior Secondary three (JS3) students in the study area.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.