Effect of Teaching Methods on Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools

Effect of Teaching Methods on Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools
Effect of Teaching Methods on Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools




The study was carried out to examine the effect of teaching methods on pupils academic performance in primary schools . From the population size of 1264 pupils, 120 primary five pupils were randomly sampled for the study from five selected schools in the study area. Three questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and a quasi experimental research design was adopted. Instrument for data collection was Teacher-Made Achievement Test (AT). Data obtained were analyzed using independent t-test. Findings indicated that pupils taught using demonstration method and role play method achieve academically better than those taught using play-way and traditional method. It was recommended therefore that teachers on the primary level should endeavour to use demonstration method as well as role-play method in teaching the subjects to effectively ensure better pupils academic performance.




1.1    Background to the study

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. Teaching is a continuous process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners through the use of appropriate methods. In order to bring desirable changes in students, teaching methods used by teacher should be best for the subject. Appropriate teaching methods enhance work effective learning if they suit learners’ needs because every learner interprets and responds to questions in a diverse ways. As such, teaching methods that suits students’ needs effect students’ academic attainments.


In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning.

Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.

Good Teaching methods facilitated desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn Ekanem (2016). The skilful and competent teacher uses as many methods and techniques as possible because, there is no single method which is regarded as the best for every teaching situation. In a single lesson therefore, the teacher can employ more than one method to facilitate learning. The success of every method depends on the personality of the teacher and his professional experience in the field of teaching. Studies have shown that coupled with appropriate instructional materials, suitable methods facilitate learning achievement to a large extent. This applies to all levels of education and particularly secondary school which deals with foundation of learning and development.


The use of appropriate teaching method incorporates an ordered way of accomplishing an end or performing a task. Etuk, Afangideh, Uya (2013) as cited in Adediwura and Tayo (2017), described methods as patterns to be followed in teaching/learning process to drive home a point. Whether in formal or informal education effective, teaching method allows for the retention of learnt the concepts. The extent to which an instructional procedure is potent depends greatly upon its effective use by the instructor and the impression it leaves on the learner, which is usually evident in their attitude as well as performance (Umoren, 2011) in (Obanya, 1984).

A research on methods of teaching suggest that the ability of the teacher to impart knowledge so depends greatly on the method he applies during the teaching learning process. Where the method is defective, the students stand to lose as they hardly benefit from lessons. According to Uya (2008), for a teacher to be able to ensure order and enhance classroom learning, they have to possess necessary pedagogical skills which have to be systematic and methodological. They have to explore and make good use of their knowledge of instructional skills/methods, whether the method adopted falls within the spectrum of general or individualized instructional methods (Umoh, 2015). Esu (2013) opined that teaching, by its nature requires a variety of methods to facilitate teaching/learning in the class and to develop the child’s knowledge and understanding to the maximum.

There are many definitions of teaching method by different authors. Teaching method can be defined as a practical application of teaching principles based on the nature of learner, the nature of the subject and the learning needs of the students/students. According to Oyekan (2014), teaching methodology is concerned with what method techniques or approach, individuals or group of teachers select and use in actual classroom situation. Some of the methods that are applicable to secondary Schools level of education include discussion method, Supervised Activity method, Activity method, Demonstration method, Games method, Excursion method, Storytelling method, Pictorial method and inquiry method.

The success of teaching lies mainly on the know-how of the subject involved and the use of appropriate method(s) that is required per time during the process of transfer of knowledge. A successful teaching is a product of effective and efficient teaching process. Vin-Mbah (2012) cited South and Laslett (1993) who described teaching as an all-purpose profession engaged in human resource development for individual and economic growth.

Teaching is also as an attempt to help someone acquire or change, some skill, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or effect desirable changes in behaviour, or in tendencies toward behaviour in his students. Effective teaching involves informing and explaining, stimulating, directing, guiding, administrating, identifying what to learn, method of learning, problems, evaluating, reporting, recording, classroom management, socialization and school-community relationship among others. Methods therefore, refer to the processes and techniques a teacher uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.

Teaching methods that teachers adopt requires some preliminary parathion Kizlik (2012) stated that teaching methods that is right for a particular subject or topic depends on several factors such as the age of the learners, developmental level of the learners, what they already know and what they need to know to succeed with the lesson, the available resources. For effective teaching of social studies, the following methods are usually adopted for teaching and learning of the subject they include discussion methods, team teaching methods, lecture methods, or play way method, field trip method and problem solving method, project or assignment method among others.

Among the aforementioned teaching methods, some methods can be better than others in the teaching of social studies at the primary level of education; it is on this ground that this study is conducted to find out how teaching methods effect academic performance of primary schools.



1.2    Statement of the problem

The continuous issue of pupil’s poor academic performance in primary schools in Onitsha North Local Government Area has been the reason for undertaking this research study. Despite the role of government, teachers and parents encourage proper education of the Nigerian child; academic performance of pupils is observed to be very poor. The report from the ministry of education promotion examination to primary six on yearly basis show that pupils academic performance depicts a disappointing falling standard.

The society seemed to blame the law academic performance  of pupils on a number of factors including the teaching methods in which this study seeks to confirm and identify the teaching method that can be used to improve academic performance of pupils.

Teachers are therefore saddled with the key responsibilities of imparting the requisite knowledge that will enable the students function well in the society of business. If teaching method adopted in teaching are not adequate or effective, students’ academic performance will be poor and this is a problem. Adunola (2011) stressed that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching methods that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered. Therefore, it become imperative to carry out a research study to examine the effects of teaching methods on pupils academic performance in primary schools.

About Peter Lawson 2732 Articles
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.