Utilization of Charts and Models on Academic Performance of Students in Biology

Utilization of Charts and Models on Academic Performance of Students in Biology
Utilization of Charts and Models on Academic Performance of Students in Biology

ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the utilization of charts and models on academic performance of students in biology. Research questions and hypotheses were stated, one hundred and twenty SS2 students were randomly selected from six secondary schools out of all SS2 students from eleven public schools in Etinan Local Government Area for the study. A quasi-experimental designed was adopted for the study. Biology Performance Test (BPT) was the instrument for data collection. Statistical tools used were independent t-test. Finding shows that students taught using charts and models performed significantly better than those taught without charts and models utilization and that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught using models.

Utilization of Charts and Models on Academic Performance of Students in Biology

Based on the findings, certain recommendations were made toward improving students’ academic performance prominent among these recommendation include: adequate provision of models and other instructional materials for effective teaching of biology and finally educational administrators should organize seminars, conferences, and workshops to improve the teachers as well as students’ knowledge on the use of charts and models and other instructional materials in the classroom.



1.1     Background to the Study

Education is regarded as machinery for the acquisition of knowledge and skills, it consist of two components which are inputs and outputs. According to Coombs (1970) in Effiong (2014) inputs consists of human and material resources and outputs form a dynamic organic whole. The fall in the standard or quality of education is attributed to many factors. Research on the effectiveness of pictorial learning strategies have shown that learning is improved when pictures supplement verbal materials, when learners draw their own pictures while studying and when learners are asked to generate metal picture while reading.

Charts and models have been used extensively in education to help clarify some of the answers researchers have found that might shed light on such question as “How do students learn effectively?” or “What is happening in a particular classroom that facilitates learning better than in another classroom?” on the foregoing, Carol (1963) in Effiong (2015) proposed that the time by students to learn academic content in contingent upon aptitude (the most often use measures is the ability to understand the instruction presented), (the extent to which the posses prerequisite is known) and the quality to disheartening to see that practicing teachers do not continue to use teaching materials after teaching practice.

The need for the use of concrete materials to facilitate learning in students cannot be over emphasize. Teacher should always bear in mind that the purpose of any worthwhile instructional materials is to communicate effectively and Cleary. Instructional material should be used when presenting lesson as this will quicken the retention of concepts better than abstract.

Models and charts should incorporate all teaching resources which provide direct and concrete experience thereby reducing abstraction during instructional process (Nicholas, 2015) According to Effiong (2014), the use of instructional materials during teaching and learning can concretized and fasten the process and in turn increases the performances of students in Biology.

Frazer (2011) further extent on an effective and efficient learning depends to a greater extent on an effective communication between the teacher and the learners in a Biology class. Effective interaction and sharing of meaning between the teacher with the aid of instructional materials. Teachers therefore, should be able to change their learners view and minds to learn through effective instructional communication.

However, the use of instructional materials is so important to the learning process that it should not be dismissed with a wave of the hand. At any level of instruction, provision should be made for students’ participation.

1.2     Statement of the Problems    

Education is seen as machinery education through which acquisition of knowledge and skills is achieved such that every nation is gearing towards the provision of quality education for her citizens. This qualify education is evidenced on the performance of students in external examinations such as West Africa School Certificate Examination (WASCE).

Utilization of Charts and Models on Academic Performance of Students in Biology

Unfortunately, it is observed by Udom (2014) that the academic performance of most learners fall bellow expectation in WAEC examination in 2014 with 529,425 candidates representing 31.28 percent obtaining five credits and above including mathematics and English Language out of a total of 1,605248 candidates who registered for the examination.

The author further attributed this fallen standard to many factors among which are home factors, environmental factors, peer group influence, teaching methodology, teaching variables and many others. However, Popool (2003) and Wales (2005) in Effiong (2015) have reported positive effects of the use of models and charts on performance of students in other aspects of science like mathematics and physics while Effiong (2015) reported a positive effect of charts and models utilization on students’ academic performance in Essien Udim Local Government Area. This raised the question, could the use of chart and models also improve performance of students in Biology in Etinan Local Government Area? This motivated the researcher to carry out this research in order to provide answer to this question.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.