ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to determine the influence of job satisfaction and teaching of Biology among secondary school teachers in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. Three research objectives were raised and three research questions and three research hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. Survey research designed was used to carry out the study. The population for the study was made up of 22 Biology teachers drawn from 16 public secondary schools in the study area. The study employed simple random sampling technique to select 2 teachers as sample size. The instrument used in gathering the needed data for the study was researcher’s made questionnaire called Job Satisfaction and Teaching of Biology Questionnaire (JSTBQ).
Data obtained was analyzed using chi-square statistical method. Based on the result of the finding, the result revealed that job satisfaction has a greater influence on the teaching of Biology among secondary school teachers. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should provide the needed satisfiers such as: regular payment of teachers’ salaries, promotion, and condition of service, rewards, and other motivational supports to avoid teachers’ job from being threatened.
Job Satisfaction and Teaching of Biology among Secondary School Teachers
1.1 Background to the Study
A teacher is an expert who is capable of imparting knowledge that will help learners to build, identify and to acquire skills that will be used to face the challenges in life. The teacher also provides to the learners knowledge, skills and values that enhance development Ayral et al, (2014). Teachers are very important in any system of education. No proper education can ever be achieved without adequately trained and motivated teachers. However, assuring teachers’ satisfaction is not an easy task given that human beings’ needs can never be fully satisfied as the satisfaction of one need leads to the desire for another higher level need. Therefore, teachers over the world seem not to be satisfied, not even in developed countries.
Job satisfaction is very crucial to the development of education and personnel’s in the educational industry. In line with this, needs satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for working in life. The teacher like every other worker works in other to satisfy his or her needs Brown et al (1994).
Many factors plays an important part in the success of educational institutions like teachers, finance, shelter, means of transport etc. But from them, “teachers” are the most important factors of educational institutions. It is essential for every management to effectively utilize their teachers. In an educational institution every teacher is assigned certain set of tasks to perform where working and these set of tasks is known as job in an educational institution. As teachers are very important in any educational institution, it is vital to talk on their performance, attitude and feelings. Every management believes that “satisfied teachers can bring their institution success and so it is very important for every management to identify whether their employees are really satisfied or not and job satisfaction survey is a tool to check whether a teacher is happy with his job or not. It is important for every institution of learning to know job satisfaction level of their employees because success of their institutions is dependent to a great extent upon the satisfied teaching staff. Satisfaction refers to individual elements of one’s job, like as salary, promotion, growth prospects, physical environment, working hours, so on and so forth Buddin et al (2009).
Teacher satisfaction plays important role in the promotion of teaching and learning excellence. Generally, satisfied teachers are more likely to motivate students to learn in the classroom, to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of satisfaction and fulfilment Crosnoe, et al (2004). While teacher satisfaction is fundamental to the teaching and learning process, several teachers are not highly satisfied. This observation should be taken seriously and an investigation into the factors influencing teacher motivation is therefore necessary to achieve the educational goals in every learning institution.
Chen and Silverthorne (2008), opined that the relevance of job satisfaction is very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. It probably ranks alongside professional knowledge and skills, centre competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance. Professional knowledge, skills and centre competencies occur when one feels effective in one’s behaviour. Teachers‟ opportunities for promotion are also likely to exert an influence on job satisfaction. By supporting this Robbins (2013) maintains that promotion opportunities provide for personal growth, increased responsibility, and increased social status. Limited or lack of opportunities of teachers for promotion affects educational outputs negatively. According to Luthans (2008), salaries not only assist people to attain their basic needs, but are also instrumental in satisfying the higher level needs of people. Monetary and other kinds of equitable incentives encourage teachers’ job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is either a global feeling about the job or a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects of facets of the job. The facet approach is used to find out which parts of the job produce satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The most important factors conducive to job satisfaction include mentally challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions and supportive co-workers. For most employees work also fills the need for social interaction and so, friendly supportive employees also lead to increased job satisfaction (Drago and others, 2012). Job satisfaction can also be seen as an indicator of emotional well-being or psychological health. According to Boone and Kuntz (2012), offering teachers fair and reasonable compensation motivate them to put in their best in achieving the instructional objectives for the learners. They further stated that schools cannot operate smoothly and cannot achieve their objectives and goals if the teachers are not satisfied in their job. Umoh (2010), teacher job satisfaction is a measure of school effectiveness. When teachers are not satisfied with their jobs to the extent that attrition rate is high, it means that the schools are not effective.
However, in Nigeria as well as other part of the world, studies conducted by scholars so far have failed to explain what actually caused teachers’ dissatisfaction with their job. Eze (2011) stated that teachers’ job satisfaction is influenced by such important factors as teachers’ way of selecting the profession of teaching, their gender, working conditions, difficulties in the profession, financial conditions, experience in teaching, relationships with colleagues, corporate policies, and opportunities of promotion within the school, administrators and management. However, it is an issue of discussion and research how and to what extent these factors influence teachers’ job satisfaction. The study was therefore conducted to examine how prompt payment of teachers’ salary, promotion and teachers’ welfare influence the teaching of Biology among secondary school teachers in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.
Job Satisfaction and Teaching of Biology among Secondary School Teachers
1.2 Statement of the Problem
School teachers in Nigeria have complained of government inability to satisfy their needs shelter, home, food etc. Among workers in the civil service, the teachers are the least motivated incentives, allowances transportation etc. Their salaries are not paid when due and their promotion is delayed. The salary is not paid as at when the promotion took place. The classroom where they carry out their job is overcrowded and in some cases, the children sit on the floor to learn. This makes it difficult for the teacher to manage his class effectively.
Besides, government officials from ministry of education, parents, and members of the community where they teach do not have respect for them. To enhance their economy and improve their living standards most of them engage in other business ventures during the school period. The time and energy devoted to the business affect commitment to duty as a teacher and consequently hinders the performance of the students. Moreover, whenever teachers are not adequately taken care of especially with regards to regular and prompt payment of their salaries and other entitlements, their attitude to work automatically changes. They refuse to obey laid down rules for their work. They could come to work. Instead of teaching, many of them resort to discussing their personal problems in their staff rooms and offices. This study is therefore sought to examine job satisfaction and the teaching of Biology among secondary schools teacher in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.