Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Academic Achievement Of Biology Students

Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Academic Achievement Of Biology Students
Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Academic Achievement Of Biology Students

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Academic Achievement Of Biology Students  in Ukanafun Local Government Area. Two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study comprising of the entire SS2 students in ten (10) public secondary schools. Out of the target population, one hundred (100) students were selected to form a sample size. Biology achievement test (BAT) was the major instrument for the study, although personal interview and observation were also used. From the analysis, the result revealed that the use of audio-visual materials while teaching and learning take place really influence the academic achievement of biology students in secondary schools. Finally, it was recommended that students and teachers should get involve in their various roles in the improvisation and utilization of audio – visual resources when necessary.   

Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Academic Achievement Of Biology Students







1.1 Background to the Study

 Webster’s Encyclopedia unabridged Dictionary of the English Language defines Audio-Visual aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the sense of hearing and the sense of sight. Examples: films, recordings, photographic etc used in classroom instructing library collections or the likes”. The term has also been defined by Dike (2000) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight as in visual resources or through the combination of senses.

According to Anzaku (2011) “the term audio-visual materials is commonly refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. This according to the above definition, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of “process and experience” for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the audio-visual materials like an exhibit or a study print.

Anzaku (2011) further stated that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment alike, that materials are considered to be system or body of content of potential value when put to work while equipment or instructions often referred to as hardware components, are the means of presenting such content.

The importance of audio-visual materials and academic achievement of student cannot be over emphasized. Below are some of the roles of audio-visual materials. Basing learning in sense experience, extending experience, making learning permanent, encouraging participation, stimulating interest, individualized instructions and also services as source of information in teaching and learning.

Ngozi (2012) unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because the normal learning in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which that functions can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.

Eze (2008), also states that the human being learns more easily and faster by audio-visual processes than by verbal explanations alone. His ability to arrive at abstract concept through perceptual experience is however a phenomenon not clearly explained and perhaps not explicable. Furthermore, Obetunji (2000), stressed that audio-visual materials when effectively used have these advantages. They lessen major weakness of verbalism, humanize and vitalize subject matter, provide interesting materials needed, stimulate the interest of the students.

Swank (2011), stressing the effectiveness of visual materials in learning, estimated that about 40% of our concepts are based upon visual experience, 25% upon auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% upon miscellaneous organic sensation and 3% upon taste smell. With the above assertion, it becomes clearer why audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes. This is because they bring the different senses contributions together to get 100% clarity.

Other important of audio-visual materials are as follows:-

Extending Experience

Gopal (2010), stressed that audio-visual materials help the teacher to overcome physical difficulties of presenting subject matter. That is to say, with audio-visual materials help the teacher to overcome physical difficulties of presenting subject matter. That is to say, with audio-visual materials, the barrier of communication and distance is broken. The culture and climatic conditions of other countries can be brought into the classroom with the aids of slides, films, filmstrips and projectors. This is important because, according to Dike (2000), “once the phenomenon is visualized, the picture and knowledge becomes very clear and permanent”.

Agreeing to this assertion, a 20th centery Clinese philosopher stated that “one picture is worth a thousand words”.

Encouraging Participation:

Natoli (2011), once again added that “audio-visual materials are rich opportunities for students to develop communication skill while actively engaged in solving meaningful problems”. In other words, students certainly like it more and learn better if they are engaged in important and appealing activities. For instance, involving students in bulletin board display will enhance their choice of colour and aid their understanding of the concept in question or when they join the teacher in dramatization of an event or process.

Stimulating interest

According to Katherine (2009) “learning takes place effectively when the teacher sets out to provide learning situation in which a child will learn because of his natural reactions of the provided materials”. During the process of learning, the teacher has to provide the learning situation to satisfy the natural reaction of the learner, and this is through the use of instructional aids. The attention of the learner is caught and his interest is also won and he is ready to learn.

Fawett Hills (2009), also contributing on the role of audio-visual material in stimulating interest stated that “a friendly accepting group climate is important in any learning situations, especially those materials that require students to reveal their ignorance and confront their fellow students”. When there is a climate of acceptance in learning, then learning is stimulated.

Individual instruction

Lestage (1999), stressed that audio-visual materials provide a means of individualizing instruction. This he said is possible through programmed learning and taps which enable the learner to learn at his pace and also to work on his own. Moreover, according to Dike (2000), the machine frees the teacher to work with individual students, since he or she is not now required to carry out routine drills. Production of resources by student is another way of individualizing instruction.

Serves as a source of information

According to Patason (2010), “the child is to think, but he must have the information to with”. This audio-visual resources serves, because, the information can be got from the good use of perceptual instructional materials especially those provided from our locality. When they are used in the class, their familiarity gives a background for understanding the information.

Menaught (2007), also observed that audio-visual materials are very useful in teaching and instructional as well as promotional aids. He further stressed that where consistency of presentation is desirable, audio-visual materials are useful. They provided experience not easily secured in other ways hence contribute to the depth and variety of learning.

Making learning permanent

Audio-visual resources can play a major, role of making learning permanent, Gopal (2012), stressed that “audio-visual methods do seem to facilitate the acquisition, the retention and the recall of lessons learned, because, they seem to evoke the maximum response of the whole organism to the situations in which learning is done. And perceptual materials richly associate themselves with the unique experiential stressed that audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes because “having seen something, most people remember, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up and image at a mere mention and can be talked freely.

Dike (2000), also explained that students forget because of lack of interest and opportunity to use the knowledge they have gained later on. Audio-visual resources can therefore contribute to the clarity of information presented by allowing students to visualize what is learned. Thus the sayings:

        What I hear, I forget

        What I see, I remember

        What I do, I know

Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Academic Achievement Of Biology Students

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The study is motivated by the fact that students do not retain for long or understand what they are taught without audio-visual aids such learning does not encourage participation and lacks interest or stimulation. Above all such learning cannot be permanent. Yet, there is evidence of low utilization and non-availability of audio-visual materials in schools. The study will therefore investigate materials in some secondary schools, in Ukanafun Local Government Area. And so that note will be taken of the hindrances of work towards promoting the use of audio-visual materials.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

  1. The purpose of this study is to discover and document the use of audio – visual aids in teaching and learning processes in secondary school biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area with particular reference to Western Annang Secondary commercial School (WASCO).
  2. The study will also create awareness on the impact of audio – visual instructions on the students.
  3. It will find out the factors affecting audio – visual materials and the improvisation of instructional materials.

1.4   Significance of the Study

 Audio – visual materials have been in existence for a long time but they are often underutilized. It is expected   that, following the identification of the hindrances of audio – visual resources in schools, effort will be made to minimizes    the effect of the hindrances to maximum utilization of audio – visual resources in schools, and also effort will be made to minimizes the effort of the  hindrances and promote adequate utilization of the available resources.

Discoveries from the study will guide teachers, government, sponsoring bodies and donors on the purchase of not only printed but also non – printed materials for schools and colleges. When the use of audio – visual materials is encouraged, there will definitely be a high demand for the materials and the producers will put in more efforts in the production and even come out with more   methods of applying them to teaching and learning. This may tends to expose the learners more to thinking than relying on the teacher. The research will also pave the way for researchers into others areas of concern and interest and will give researchers insight into this topic of investigation.

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