Abstract : This study determine the relevance of Audio-Visual Materials Utilization and Attention Span of Primary School Pupils in Social Studies. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated by the researchers to direct and test the variables. A survey research design was used. A sample size of 276 pupils was chosen for this study. The simple random sampling technique was adopted. More so, Pupils Achievement Test (PAT) was the instrument used to obtain data from the respondents for the study. All the PAT consists of a 20- item multiple choice questions administered were duly returned by the respondents. However, the data were subjected to independent t-test analysis. The results of the findings reveal that, there is a significant influence in the utilization of Audio Visual Materials on the Attention span of Primary School Pupils in Social Studies.
Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Attention Span Of Primary School Pupils
1.1 Background to the Study
Using audio-visual materials in the classroom is nothing new. Since filmstrips were first studied during World War II as a training tool for soldiers, educators have recognized the power of audio-visual materials to capture the attention of learners, increase their motivation and enhance their learning experience.
Audio-visual devices are hardware and software through which learning process is encouraged and carried out, such includes; film strip, radio, television, slides etc. Its use is not peculiar in the Nigerian educational system but what is perhaps new, is the technological innovations and the great challenges which education posse to teaching/learning processes. In the past, marbles, cowries, beads etc. were used to effect teaching and learning in Nigeria.
The traditional approach to education entailed that a teacher (a reservoir of knowledge) stand before a class and pour all he/she knows to the students, but the advent of other teaching aids has altered the image of the teacher as the sole custodian of knowledge, now seen as a facilitator who brings closer to his/her pupils experience and materials beyond the scope of classroom environment. Education being an essential tool for teaching men to communicate better; brings about awareness and enlightenment while drawing greater benefits from the exchange established between communication and itself (education).
Communication is an inseparable aspect of human existence, and central to all forms of human activities. Hence television, a tool of mass communication performs the functions of: informing, entertaining and educating the mass audience. It uses its unique features to enhance its power to change human behaviour. Television was established in Nigeria in 1959, by the then western region with the aim of using it as an educational tool among other purposes, but instead, it became politician’s mouthpiece, and eventually, everyday household appliances, communicating better than other medium with the capacity to motivate learning, as it’s a combination of audio, visual and motion.
Sarnoff (2004) noted that television is destined to provide greater knowledge, truer perception, more accurate, appraised broader understanding, greater appreciation and more opportunities. However, sometimes educating through the television is seen as a threat to the products. Nevertheless, there is the urgent need to develop and change the traditional methods of education. Educators and communicators in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) have resorted to exploring the useful, unique characteristics and qualities of television in spreading knowledge. Akpan (2001) emphasized the fact that educational television is the use of television as a means of providing educational information in general, this including instructional television, the learners come and go without any serious attachment to the content.
Basically, communication is a function of education and both aim at learning, teaching and sharing of experience. One definitely cannot function without the other. Communication is a tool for learning: learning efforts include using the right and effective instructional tools. The increasing link between education and communication strive towards achieving jointly the aims and objectives of both fields. It also serves as supplements and enrichment to school curriculum, broadcasting stations in many countries have developed interesting, useful and imaginative educational patterns in all fields of learning, while others dedicate separate broadcasting channels in television to educational programmes.
Educational programmes however, are usually produced by educators in conjunction with broadcasters. But the misfortune of this is that such co-operation is sometimes lacking in quality and objective. Since the 15th century, human ingenuity has created major breakthroughs in technology. Modern technology has accelerated the growth and development of different firm of communication channels. The ability of document knowledge in books has not only broadened knowledge scope, but it has also helped in the invention of other innovation, communication devices like television, radio, film, projectors etc. Crave for knowledge has drawn inspiration from people’s ideology, values, living patterns, norms, and equally detects which part to keep pace with present civilization. This is impossible without communication.
Ibe-bassay (2003) has noted that, it is only through the transfer, transmission and exchange of ideas, knowledge, belief or attitudes from one person to another within a given social organization that learning occurs. Learning styles research has led to various ways in which to define and test how different people learn. It is one way to define a learner in other to find out how people learn. Learning is an aspect of education. One must learn in order to be educated because education has a basic responsibility to prepare people, particularly children, to accept and adjust to a rapidly changing society. Research has shown that most effective learning situations are those provided for students response and for reinforcement of correct response, this means that pupils in view of educational television programmes need to participate in the instructional process.
The inefficiency of the telecommunication system has made most feedbacks on educational television programmers, not to get to the recipient and this will result to non-response. The research carried out on elementary students from grades three (3) through seven (7) on retention of filmed content, which they were advised to pay attention to sound (Audio) and acts (visuals). After the film shows; questions were asked, it was discovered that there was a high score on audio than visual while older students had higher series than the younger students in respect to the visual question. With the above result, the conclusion was reached that children in the primary grades are more responsive to stimuli.
Gabriel (2002) says that the idea of an (attentive) responsive environment for young children based on part on the concept of effect on motivation. The young child has a need to be competent in interacting with his environment to observe the effects of his own action and to have a sense of competence or of being effective when presenting or teaching educational programmes the presenters/ teachers should consider action words.
The use of educational video and television in classroom has risen steadily over the 20 to 30 years, according to a series of studies conducted by the cooperation for public broadcasting. Not only is this technology widely used, according to the most recent, but it is also highly valued as a means of teaching more effectively and creatively.
Hence, this research will be exploring the theory and research supporting the educational use of Audio-Visual materials Utilization and attention Span of Primary School Pupils in Social Study in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.
Audio-Visual Materials Utilization And Attention Span Of Primary School Pupils
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Television serves as the modern child’s window to this environment and the world in general. The visual elements give its unique feature for effective utilization for children’s programmes. The program presenter/teacher can use actors, special set pieces, puppets, interesting make-up and animation, etc. to arouse and attract the attention of the children.
However, educational television programmes in most African countries still follow the conventional classroom style and technique. Educational programmes aimed at pupils of a particular age are supposed to address the children in the language they can understand, designed to stimulate interest and hold attention. The area of investigation is to examine the extent to which audio visual has affected the educational learning process, enhancing learning, transmitting knowledge and the development of children’s social intellect, physical skills and abilities.
1.3 Purpose for the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the relevance of Audio Visual materials Utilization and Attention Span of Primary School Pupils in Social Study in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area and if possible, determines the effect on the academic performance of pupils.
Specifically, the study intends to:
- Examine the pupils’ ability to response to lesson in educational television programmes.
- Examine the important of teaching on the use of audio visual materials in social study
1.4 Significance of the Study
Result of this will be utilized by teachers, School authorities, and Government. They are expected to create awareness to teachers school authority, education board and government of Nsit Ubium Local Government authority on the utilization of Audio-Visual Materials in schools. This will make teachers rise up to the challenge, it will also make the School authority and Government to intervene, strategize and consequently supervise and monitor the classroom teachers on the use of Audio-Visual Materials to facilitate learning in the schools.