Teaching Strategies and Learning of Biology among Secondary School Students

Teaching Strategies and Learning of Biology among Secondary School Students
Teaching Strategies and Learning of Biology among Secondary School Students

Abstract: The study Teaching Strategies and Learning of Biology among Secondary School Students was conducted in Etinan Local Government Area. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the teaching strategies on the learning of Biology among secondary school students. Two (2) research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study while, the study design was quasi-experimental design, the study population was 2075 students while the sample size was 180 students selected purposively. The major instrument for data collection was a Biology learning outcome test (BLOT) while the data collected were  analyzed using independent t-test statistic. Findings showed that  students taught Biology using inquiry strategy performed better than those taught Biology using lecture strategy and discussion strategy. Hence it was recommended that teachers should always employ the most appropriate method that will improve the students learning, and also should be encouraged to use inquiry strategy.

Teaching Strategies and Learning of Biology among Secondary School Students



1.1     Background to the Study

Teaching is an art, but the success of any teacher lies in making his subject simple as to make it intelligible for his students in order to make students learn effectively, the teacher has to adopt the right method of teaching. According to Archibong (2009), the interest of students in some science subjects and Biology in particular, the mastery  the students demonstrate on the completion of a course of study depend on the teaching methods employed by the teachers. Several factors have been advance as the major cause of students low performance in examination especially in a standardized examination  these includes the students factors, teachers factor, societal factors, governmental infrastructural problem, and the instructional strategies employed by the teachers (Ali and Chacko, 2013) and recently students’ learning differences (Felder,2013). To overcome these problems, there is need to strive for a balance of effective teaching strategies such as co-operative teaching strategy, inquiry teaching method, demonstration teaching strategy and even lecture teaching method.

Lecture method is seen as a conventional method of teaching which is most tines lecture centred or teacher centred, the teacher carry out virtually every thing by instructing the students what to do while the student jot down note for their own use. In the teaching of Biology, the lecture method help to cover the school syllabus, because the teacher carry out chalk and talk system, while the students only listen as the instruction is issued out by the teacher. (Bassey, 2013).

Inquiry strategy or method is also another method of teaching which helps in conveying ideas to the learners, in this kind of teaching method, the learners are at the center of affairs, it helps to promote the students or the learners reasoning ability, it takes the students to a level of critical thinking encourages the students to research for relevant knowledge discovery (Hesson and Shade, 2007). Slavir (2006) postulated that inquiry strategy or method help to promote goal oriented behavior among the students, it is seen as effective since it allows for the flow of instruction from and among the students rather than the teacher who is most times the focal point in the conventional lecture method.

Another teaching method is demonstration teaching method according to Clark (2005) is based on simple but sound principle that we learn by “doing”.. this method is particularly effective in teaching a subject like Biology that can be observed and then performed. It is therefore pertinent to know that not all methods are appropriate for learners at the secondary school level and the most enjoyable aspect of teaching and learning occur when a variety of teaching methods are used. In classroom around the world, teachers lecture, students take notes and then students are tested on what they have learned (Akintola, 2007).

Today, experiential or “hands-on” learning is fast replacing or supplementing the traditional “chalk-talks” method through experiment, activities, simulations, debate, team work and other participatory activities which aid retention, motivates learners to learn and also encouraged group cooperation. Therefore the effective learning of the subject Biology at the secondary level largely depends on the teaching method used in teaching the subject. Against this backdrop, it is pertinent to study the teaching methods and learning of Biology among students in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.


Teaching Strategies and Learning of Biology among Secondary School Students

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The yearning for quality and effective instruction delivery has been a long standing objectives of science education. The emerging concern for the poor achievement of students in school science and its resultant consequence on the production and development of future scientist, engineers and technologies had led to the search for instructional method that promotes effective and improved science learning. Biology as a science subject need to be taught using the most appropriate methods that will improve the learning outcome of the students.

The poor performance of students have been attributed to various factors, these include among others students reading habit, students attitude towards the subject Biology, even some teachers characteristics which includes the various method of teaching employed. The teaching method such as lecture, discussion and cooperative teaching methods has been used, but the students learning outcome continues to be poor. Therefore, this study intend to investigate the teaching method and how they affect the learning outcome of students in Biology in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area.

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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.