Abstract: The study investigated Classroom Variable and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools. To achieve the purpose of the study, three (3) research questions were formulated. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of all the Biology teachers in all the secondary schools in the study area. 27 Biology teachers were chosen as the sample size through a purposive random sampling technique. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire tagged “classroom Variable and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools Questionnaires (CVTBSSQ)”.
The method of data analysis was simple percentage. The study revealed that class size affects the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area; classroom teaching facilities influences the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area; classroom management/supervision technique influences the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo local Government Area. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that schools should have small class size to promote effective teaching in the classroom; Government and educational stakeholders should supply enough teaching facilities to promote effective teaching in the classroom; teachers should adopt or use good classroom management technique to promote effective teaching in the Classroom.
Classroom Variable and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools
1.1 Background of the Study
The nation’s overall development is inextricably tried to its educational system since education is a light that shows mankind the right direction to surge as well as being an engine for the growth and progress of any society. It not only imparts knowledge, skills and inculcates values but is also responsible for building human capacity which breeds, drives and sets technological innovation and economic growth (Abayo, 2010).
Education in its broadest meaning is any process by which an individual gains knowledge and develops attitudes or skills. It is an experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual and it its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, values, skills from one generating to another generation (Holmes, 2014).
The function of education is both social and individual. Its social function is to help each individual become more effective member of society by passing along to him the collective experience of the past and the present. Its individual function is to enable him to lead a more satisfying and productive life by preparing him to handle new experience successfully (Sadler, 2011). This can only be achieved when the environment of the classroom is encouraging.
Students are individuals who accumulate knowledge with the help of the teachers in a motivating and encouraging classroom environment. The learning experience accumulated in a sound classroom environment serve as the bridge to overcome life’s circumstances and eventually becomes a more effective member of the society. With this view, there is need to introduce quality into the system by creating a sound and conducive environment for teaching and learning process
However, classroom variable according to Ajayi (2011) is a classroom physical surrounding which includes the students, chairs, tables and Chalk board. They are variables that affect teaching and learning either positively or negatively. Hence the class size remains an important area that should be studies and well managed to enhance teaching and learning processes. George (2011) added that an affordable classroom will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.
Thus, for learning to take place and the effective teaching enhanced, the classroom must be stimulating and encouraging. The classroom must be inviting or welcoming, conclusive and accommodating for adequate and effective learning to take place.
According to Grant (2014), classroom should be a suitable building, furnished and well equipped with facilities. Michael (2011) opined that classroom facilities are school equipment and materials used in facilitating the teaching learning process. These facilities include seats, tables, chalk board, lighting, charts, maps and computers with internet connection.
Marden (2012) reported that safe and orderly classroom environment aspect of instructional space and facilities were significantly related to effective teachings in schools. Poor classroom facilities ad ineffective ventilating system leads to poor health among student as well as teachers which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates. These factors can adversely affect student’s behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers and poor learning attitude among students.
It is against this background that this work is undertaken to determine the effect of classroom variables on the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.
Classroom Variable and Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools
1.2 Statement of the Problem
For over the years, the teaching of Biology in Secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area was ineffective thereby yielding poor academic performance among the learners. The ineffective teaching of Biology adopted by the Biology teachers is as a result of lack of valuable classroom facilities such as chairs, tables, desk, class size, chalk board, classroom teaching facilities and classroom management/controls. Soyin ka (2012) observed that the decline in educational system is as a result of poor educational funding by the government. He further stated that secondary school classrooms in Nigeria needed restructuring and financing.
The interest of this research has been activated by the fact that all the effort made by Akwa Ibom State Government to improve all the Secondary School classroom has not yielded the desire result. This is as a result of classroom variable such as class size, classroom teaching facilities and classroom management / supervision.
It is against this background that this study is conducted to examine the influences of classroom variable (class size, classroom teaching facilities and classroom management/supervision technique) on teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government.