List Six Methods of Teaching and Discuss Four

List Six Methods of Teaching and Discuss Four
List Six Methods of Teaching and Discuss Four

List Six Methods of Teaching and Discuss Four



The choice of a teaching method to be used in the classroom encounter depends on many factors. Research has shown that many factors could determine the method a teacher would choose in teaching his lesson. Afolabi (2010) reported the strength of these factors among the eleven he studied in this order; the instructional materials available to the teacher, teacher’s ability and knowledge of the teaching method, the objectives of the lesson or topic, the content of the topic or lesson, the attitude of the students, the time for the subject, the Learners’ activities in the lesson, the students’ ability, the population of the students, the teacher’s feeling or mode and the school environment.

Below are the six methods of teaching:


List Six Methods of Teaching and Discuss Four

  1. Lecture method
  2. Discussion method
  3. Project method
  4. Demonstration method
  5. Discovery method
  6. The Field Trip


  1. Lecture Method:

A lecture is an oral presentation of information by the instructor. It is the method of relaying factual information which includes principles, concepts, ideas and all theoretical knowledge about a given topic.

In a lecture the instructor tells, explains, describes or relates whatever information the trainees are required to learn through listening and understanding. It is therefore teacher-centred. The instructor is very active, doing all the talking. Trainees on the other hand are very inactive, doing all the listening. Despite the popularity of lectures, the lack of active involvement of trainees limits its usefulness as a method of instruction.

            The lecture method of instruction is recommended for trainees with very little knowledge or limited background knowledge on the topic. It is also useful for presenting an organised body of new information to the learner. To be effective in promoting learning, the lecture must involve some discussions and, question and answer period to allow trainees to be involved actively. A formal or semi-formal discourse is which the instructor presents a series of events, facts, or principles, explores a problem or explains relationships.

Advantages of Lecture Method:

  1. Saves
  2. Permits
  3. Requires less rigid space
  4. Permits
  5. Permits
  6. Permits better centre over contact and sequence.

Disadvantages of Lecture Method:

  1. Involves one-way
  2. Poses problems in skill
  3. Encourages student
  4. Poses difficulty in gauging student
  5. Require highly skilled
  1. Discussion method

Discussion involves two-way communication between participants.

In the classroom situation an instructor and trainees all participate in discussion.

During discussion, the instructor spends some time listening while the trainees spend sometimes talking. The discussion is, therefore, a more active learning experience for the trainees than the lecture. A discussion is the means by which people share experiences, ideas and attitudes. As it helps to foster trainee’s involvement in what they are learning, it may contribute to desired attitudinal changes. Discussion may be used in the classroom for the purpose of lesson development, making trainees apply what they have learnt or to monitor trainees learning by way of feedback.

Advantages of Discussion method

  1. Increase students interest
  2. Increases students acceptance and
  3. Utilises student knowledge and
  4. Results in more permanent learning because of high degree of student participation.


Disadvantages of Discussion method

  1. Require highly skilled
  2. Requires preparation by
  3. Limits
  4. Consumes
  5. Restricts size of


  1. Project Method

A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting. The project method is a teacher-facilitated collaborative approach in which students acquire and apply knowledge and skills to define and solve realistic problems using a process of extended inquiry. Projects are student-centered, following standards, parameters, and milestones clearly identified by the instructor.

The Project Method of teaching centers on an assignment of interest undertaken by an individual student or a group or a whole class. In this method, the students are guided when necessary. The teacher acts only as a guide.

Advantages of project method

  1. It gives freedom to children
  2. It enable the children to learn from their own experience 
  3. It is free from the defects of the text book method
  4. It is a natural method of acquiring knowledge 
  5. It gives training in social adjustment
  6. It gives training in democratic way of living 
  7. It trains the children in solving problems
  8. It helps the teacher to understand his pupils

Disadvantages of project method

  1. It hampers the completion of syllabus
  2. There is a possibility of giving more importance to less importance
  3. It may lead to unsystematic learning
  4. It may lead to monopolization by some students
  5. It may disturb the school working system
  1. Demonstration Method

Demonstration method of teaching is a traditional classroom strategy used in technical and training colleges and in teacher education. The word demonstration means to give a demo or to perform the activity. In demonstration method, the teacher teaches his students using demonstration method in a systematic and a step by step process.

Demonstration method is practical ways of teaching; in this method teacher perform an activity to teach his student a concept, this often occurred when students find it difficult to connect theories to actual practice and when students are unable to understand the theories and its applications.

Demonstration is a teaching method used to communicate an idea with the aid of visuals such as flip charts, posters, power point, etc. A demonstration is the process of teaching someone how to make or do something in a step-by-step process. As you show how, you “tell” what you are doing.

List Six Methods of Teaching and Discuss Four

Advantages of demonstration method

  1. Demonstration method helps students to understand the topic easily
  2. Demonstration method helps students in teaching learning process and keep them active
  3. Demonstration method leads to concrete learning
  4. Demonstration method use the principles of reflective thinking
  5. Demonstration method helps to motivate students in teaching learning process


Demerits of demonstration method

  1. Students are not involved in practice therefore they cannot benefit directly and gain personal experiences because teacher carry out the demonstration
  2. Demonstration method is costly because it requires costly materials
  3. Demonstration method is time-consuming method
  4. Demonstration method is not based on learning by doing but rather by seeing
  5. Demonstration method does not provide training for the scientific method.
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