Use of Sports Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools

ABSTRACT: The research on Use of Sports Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools was conducted in Uyo Local Government Area. Two research questions were formulated and employed. The population for the study was 1,102 Physical/Health Education students of Junior Secondary Two (JSS 2) class. A sample size of one hundred and twenty (120) students were selected from four secondary schools in the area of study and used for the research. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted for the study. Physical and Health Education Achievement Test was used as the instrument for the study. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation.

Use of Sports Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools

The findings made from the study showed that the use of sports equipment such as soccer and javelin influences the effective teaching of Physical and Health Education; and that school location does not influence the effective teaching of Physical and Health Education when adequate sports equipment are used in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the government should make provision for the necessary sports equipment and that adequate supervision should be made on the way the available sports equipment are used by teachers in secondary schools in the state.     



1.1 Background of the Study

Schools are established for the purpose of teaching and learning; as such, it is pertinent that the teachers and learners be properly accommodated and equipped to facilitate the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. Several attempts have been made by educationists and psychologists over the years to find ways of enhancing educational outcome of learners as well as input of teachers. Many studies have shown that among other things, school facilities enhance teaching in sciences, Physical and Health Education inclusive.

Eneh and Nkang (2001) in postulation of the theory of cognitive development, showed that learners function at the operational stage of mental development, and one of the characteristics of students at this stage of development is that they hardly remember what they learn except the learning experiences are made to be in concrete form; and one way of making learning experiences concrete is to apply the appropriate school facilities and equipment in the teaching process.

Generally, the aim of teaching is to develop the learners’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor abilities (Ekanem, 2006). In a situation whereby a teacher always presents a “sermon” lesson to the learners without application of practical, the learners’ cognitive abilities are developed, while the affective and psychomotor abilities suffer flaws.

Physical and Health Education which refers to the study and appreciation of the art and science of human movement, involves the execution of various sports activities in which the learners are actively involved in role playing such as players, referees, etc. (Hardman, 2002). The activities are organized and administered under the auspices of the school and supervised by the teachers.

These sports are undertaken with the aim of building a sound mind in a healthy body (Ojeme, 2002). Specifically, this is to meet the physical, emotional, social, physiological, and intellectual needs of the learners. This view is equally buttressed by Amuchie (2003), when he asserted that institutional sports is aimed at meeting health needs and the promotion of optimum development of learners.

Consequent upon the activity-based design of the Physical and Health Education curriculum, the subject cannot be taught effectively without the “doing” aspect which involves the use of various sports equipment in relation to each topic. To acquire the relevant skills and knowledge in the subject, there is need for practicalization of the concepts in real or simulated situations. The practical, therefore requires the use of the right tools, in the right way, and at the right time, based on universally accepted standards (Akinbobola, 2005). Physical and Health Education being a practical subject would be more interesting and better understood if taught as an activity.

Moreso, as a way of improving learning situation, the teacher must motivate the learners to have greater participation in the presentation of the lesson (Agboola, 2006). This statement is supportive of the fact that learners who are taught this way develop personal skills necessary for academic activities and wholesome livelihood for society living.

Abedalbasit (2013) points out that the process of revealing the importance of Physical and Health Education is the school’s responsibility. This can be achieved by providing sufficient opportunities for sports practicing for the development of physical fitness, healthy habits and safe attitudes in order to help stabilize their emotions. Hence, schools have been identified as having a key role to play, but it is apparent that Physical and Health Education teachers are becoming more accountable than ever before, as their roles continue to evolve into pursuing opportunities to facilitate activities that engage learners through appropriate use of sports equipment, thereby, adding value to the study of Physical and Health Education.

In line with these ideas, the researcher develops interest in studying the Use of Sports Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Government Area.


Use of Sports Equipment and Effective Teaching of Physical and Health Education in Secondary Schools

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitudes from the teacher to the learners. Apparently, the level of effectiveness of any teaching context is more or less reflected in the academic performance of the learners. The poor level of academic performance of Physical and Health Education students in Nigeria has reached an alarming rate. This draws the attention of well-meaning Nigerians to investigate what could be done to enhance the effectiveness of the discipline.

The researcher personally observed that in most secondary schools, the teaching of Physical and Health Education has not really been effective over time due to inappropriate use of sports equipment for instruction. Teachers have failed to consider the Physical and Health Education curriculum as activity-based; as such, they tend to neglect partially or completely the practical aspect of the subject.

As pointed out  by Morgan and Hansen (2008), the barriers that restrict teachers from providing effective Physical and Health Education programs are classified as either “institutional” (outside the teacher’s control); or “teacher-related” (arising from the teacher). The institutional barrier lies on the unavailability of sports equipment and facilities which would have been used for effective teaching of the subject. Some schools that may boast of a few of these equipment cannot even ascertain their level of functionality.

On the part of the teachers, some of them do not have the technical know-how on the appropriate use of these sports equipment should they be provided. Some teachers are just being lazy about using these equipment while teaching; thereby defeating the purpose of studying Physical and Health Education as a subject.

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