The Effects Of Audio Visual Aids On Academic Performance Of Students In Biology

The Effects Of Audio Visual Aids On Academic Performance Of Students In Biology
The Effects Of Audio Visual Aids On Academic Performance Of Students In Biology

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the Effects Of Audio Visual Aids On Academic Performance Of Students In Biology. Research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. The population consisting of all the secondary schools students in the study area. The simple random sampling technique was used in the study, a maximum of 50 students were randomly selected from each of the four secondary schools that was selected which is made up of two hundred (200) students.  The instrument for data collection was Biology Achievement Test (BAT) which consists of ten (10) questions. The resulting data were analyzed using independent t-test. It was concluded that one hypothesis was accepted and one was rejected. Based on the findings, recommendations were suggested, which include, governments should install more audio-visual aids in schools and libraries to help in promoting teaching and learning process, all the schools in the state should be linked to national grade to enable them have electric light notwithstanding the location of the schools. 

The Effects Of Audio Visual Aids On Academic Performance Of Students In Biology

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   Background to the Study

Audio-visual Aids involves the use of recorded pictures and sounds in the classroom. It is one of the instructional strategies or materials which enhances effective teaching and learning of Biology in the secondary schools.

The term has also been defined by Dike (2003), as those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic. He grouped Audio-visual aids into: Audio resources such as records, tapes, cassettes and radio broadcasts. Visuals resources including models real objects, three dimensional displays, chalkboard, bulletin board, adhesives graphs diagrams, charts, maps, cartons, posters and Pictures and projected forms like transparencies, slides, filmstrips and films.

Audi-visual aids are commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language Anzaku (2011). Thus according to the above definition, a textbook or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does.

Websters Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary defines audio-visual aid as “training or educational materials directed at the sense of hearing and sense of sight as films, recording and photographs used in classroom instructions, library collection and the likes”. The term has also been defined by Churchill (2001) as “those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sigh as in visual resources or through a combination of these senses.

Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience for example dramatizing an event or a procedure. Some Audio-visual materials like motion picture require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all time an exhibit or a study print.

Anzaku further stated that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment that are considered to be system or body of content potential value when put to work whole equipment or instructions often referred to as hardware component are the means of presenting such content.

According to Edem Ntuk (2010). Instructional materials are human and non human resources which may be used by the learners in isolation or combination formally or informally to facilitate the acquisition and evaluation of knowledge, skill and moral. He added that an effective teacher can use the following materials for effective teaching:

  1. Projected materials
  2. None projected material

Projected visual require the use of optical or electronic devices to project images (still or opaque) on the screen for viewing. As a result, these require projections, skill equipment, materials and electricity. Non-projected visuals do not require any of these specified conditions before they can be presented or utilized for instructional purposes. Example of projected materials are Audio cassettes, disc (CDs), radio broadcast, record players, video cassette. TV broadcast, cinema etc while non projected materials are graphics, model, photographs charts, posters etc.

In laboratory Science, the use of audio-visual technology is particularly useful, as it enables the visualization of procedures and allows for deeper comprehension that obtained just through texture presentation Okworo (2008). In conclusion, instruction of audio-visual materials in both laboratory and secondary schools by government and effective utilization by teachers will minimized the statement that science students in secondary schools are poor in performance.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Biology remains one of the core science subjects offered in senior secondary schools by science and non-science students alike. In teaching and learning, instructional materials play a key note toward concretizing learning – instructional materials make learning meaningful and help to improve students academic achievement. Biology is resource intensive, and in an era of poor funding or scarcity of resources. It may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for the teaching of Biology in schools adequately. Many workers and stakeholders have related these poor funding and performance on a number of factors including the non-availability of instructional materials like audio-visual materials.

The study is motivated by the fact that students do not retain for long or understand what they are taught without audio-visual aids. Such learning does not encourage participation and lacks interest or stimulation. It is not based in sense experience nor does it extend their experience. Above all, such learning cannot be permanent. Yet, there is also evidence of low utilization and non availability of audio-visual aids in schools. The study will therefore investigate the effects of audio-visual aids on academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools.

1.3   Purpose of the Study 

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of audio visual aids on academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

The Effects Of Audio Visual Aids On Academic Performance Of Students In Biology

1.4   Significance of the Study

Audio-visual aids have been in existence for a long time, but they are often underutilized. it is expected that, following the identification of the hindrances to maximum performances of science students, the study will be of benefit to students, teachers and the society at large. Discoveries from the study will guide teachers, government, sponsoring bodies and donors on the purchase of not only printed materials (textbook) but also non-printed materials (Audio-visual) for schools for effective teaching and learning.

1.5   Research Hypotheses 

The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of students exposed to audio-visual aids and those not exposed to.
  2. There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of male students exposed to the use of audio-visual aids and female students who are exposed to the use of audio-visual aids.
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Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of onlineproject.com.ng. A reputable researcher, Web Developer, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.